NEW FRANCE 1644 -1649
The Jesuits are charged with practicing
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Roger Williams pushed the principle that Indian religion was as
equally acceptable to God
as Christianity was, and even the free thinking puritans considered it
Four marriages, ten births and nine deaths are recorded in Kebec,
(II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) b-1644, daughter (I)-Jacques
Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese,
(1600-1663); married November 27, 1656, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Gilles
Jean Juchereau de la Ferte son Jean Junchereau seignereau du Maure
married Marie Francoise, age 11 years, 5 months daughter sieur Giffard.
Rhode Islanders proposed that unity can be achieved by adopting a
common principle of religious liberty. Roger Williams of Rhode
Island pushed this principle to the point of heresy among the Puritans
when he proclaimed that maybe the Indian religion is equally acceptable
to God as with Christianity.
Father d'Endemare wrote: It is almost impossible to make
either peace or war with these barbarians (Iroquois). Not peace
because war is their life, their amusement, and their source of profit
all in one. Not in war because they make themselves invisible to
those who seek them and only show themselves when they have heavy odds
in their favor. Go to hunt them in their villages and they fade
into the forest.
The Jesuits believed the Huron (Wendat) represented the door to the
west, as far as China, that is full of Nations more populous than the
Huron. Towards the south, we see other Peoples beyond number, to
whom we can access only by means of this door at which we now stand.
Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) noted that the Captains of
the Savages are very poorly obeyed by their People, because they use no
violence. He encouraged them to use sticks on their backs.
Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) ordered the public beating of
a Savage for beating his wife for an act of disobedience. The
Jesuit appear unaware that violence begets violence.
An overly zealous neophyte, at Tadoussac, who shaves his head like
the Jesuit, uses a whip of rope to beat the people to prayer, if they
do not respond fast enough.
Madame de la Peltrie journied to Tadoussac to wintess the
Father Ignace, a Jesuit responsible for the Mission at Tadoussac,
represents the most infamous of the Black Robes. He believed that
guided by the Holy Ghost, flagellation and whipping, as a penance, is
to be inflected upon the Savages. The good Father provided the
whip and the little children are stripped naked, before the alter of
God, to receive up to twenty five blows for their transgressions.
Some children were still at the breast. Some mothers used their
rosaries to beat the children. The Jesuit considered this
perverted practice as a Holy Ceremony. It is noteworthy that
before the Jesuit arrived an Indian never raised a hand to any child,
for any reason and the men offered themselves, for punishment,
threatened against a French boy. This perverted European practice
is surely the work of the Devil and a clear indication that the Jesuit
walk in the Darkness. It is noteworth that a religious Nun
in 2002 in Canada received 8 months in prison for doing the same things
as Father Ignace. Father (I)-Jean De Quen (Dequen) (1603-1659)
preceded Father Ignace and condoned the practice, Father (I)-Jacques
Buteus (1600-1652) preceded Father (I)-Jean De Quen and also approved
of this type of brutality. The fact that it was published
suggests this was a common practice.
Queen Mother Anne of Austria responded to the appeals of the
Society of Montreal and sent 60 soldiers to deal with the Iroquois
January: marriage, Kebec, (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died
January 26, 1691 to Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or
Algonquin, b-1620 daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Outchibaha Manikoue,
2nd marriage November 8, 1665 (II)-Marie D'Abancour, b-1618, veuve de
March 30: (I)-Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and 30
settlers repelled a large war party of Iroquois intent on taking
April 29: Father (I)-Francesco Gioseppi Bressani
(1612-1672) is captured by the Iroquois near Fort Richelieu, at the
mouth of the Richelieu River, but escaped and returned to France in
June: Kabec, five ships arrived, the Dauphin at 200 tonnage
captain Baudouin, the Saint Clement at 120 tonnage captain J.
Guyonneau, the Vierge at 120 tonnage captain H. Bourget, an unnamed
ship admiral Courdon and the Nortre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie
August 29: Kabec, birth (II)-Anne Bourdon, Metis, died
November 4, 1711 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and
Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.
September 7: Twenty two soldiers are dispatched to the Huron
Country for one season.
October 8: Hotel Dieu is opened at Ville-Marie
(Montreal) by Jeanne Mance.
November 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died
January 26, 1691 Beauport to Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, b-1626
daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Huron wife and was the adopted child
of (I)-Oliver Tardif (Letardif) (1601-1665) and was living with
(I)-Guillaume Hubou and Marie Rollet, veuve Louis Hebert. Others
suggest the marriage was January 3, 1644 and the witness were
(I)-Oliver Letardiff (1601-1665) and (I)-Quillaume Couillard,
d-1663. Prevost second marriage November 8, 1665 (II)-Marie
D'Arancour, b-1618, Veuve October 9, 1639, Kebec, Jean Jolet and veuve
October 19, 1651, Kebec, de Godfroy Guillot dit Lavalet.
(II)-Marie was daughter (I)-Adrien D'Abancour, dit Lacaille and Simone
D'Orgeville, b-1589, died January 14, 1649.
Four marriages, ten births and one death are recorded in Kebec, New
(I)-Antoine Belliveau, b-1621 arrived Acadia, 1645, married 1643
(I)-Marie Andree Guyon.
(I)-Eloi Boileux is at Trois Rivieres.
(I)-Charles Chevalier arrived 1645 Trois Rivieres married a
sauvagesse but not named. One child is recorded (II)-Anne
Chevalier, Metis, married Quebec, November 4, 1659, Quebec, (II)-Pierre
Pinguet, b-1630, died April 22, 1704 Ste. Foye, Quebec.
New France only contained 600 residents and a few hundred engages
(indentured slaves). In comparison, this is smaller than a single
large Iroquois village. The New France culture, the grand utopian
plan of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), just did not appeal to the
French citizens. Freedom was not an option that the Roman
Catholic Church was willing to offer.
Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) forbade
the Algonquin and Wendat to torture their Iroquois prisoners because
they would be disgraced to be outdone in clemency.
Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1636-48) is recalled
to France as the colonists and Maisonneuve of Fort Ville-Marie
(Montreal) are not pleased with his governorship. (I)-Louis
d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge et d'Argenteny (born about 1612
Ancy-le-Franc, France died 1660 Ville-Marie (Montreal) became temporary
Governor of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) (1645-1646).
(I)-Francois Marguerie, an interpreter, married and settled down at
Three Rivers. Later, (I)-Jean Amyot and (I)-Francois Marguerie
are crossing the St. Lawrence River near their homes and are caught in
a storm. Marquerie drown. (I)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717)
also settled at Three Rivers.
The Hiroquois were on the Saint Lawrence River on a foray when
Simon Pieskaret, a Captain of the Algonquin perceived them, he prepared
an ambuscade and captured them, turning them as prisoners to the
February: (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650)
received word from two Friars that La Tour's fort was only defended by
50 men. He lost no time in attacking the fort but on first
encounter lost 20 men with 13 wounded before he withdrew.
March 6: The Company of New France agreed to assign its
fur trade monopoly to the Kabec based Compagnie des Habirants or
Habitants Company. Fifteen businessmen, frustrated with the
Jesuit control of trading, created the Compagne des Habitants,
(Habitants Company) reserving its rights of ownership over all fur
trade of New France. The Jesuits suggest the onerous cost of
settlement caused the transfer of the Company of New France to the
Habitants of New France, but that they retained their seigniorial
rights. It is noteworthy that the peasants, servants and slaves were
not called inhabitants until the late 17th century. The
French colony established a Canadian Company (Community of the
Habitants of New France) to restore the fur trade and finally
received the blessing of the Jesuit. An overriding royalty of
1,000 pounds of fur is to be paid annually to the old company.
Over sixty Wendat (Huron) boat loads of furs arrived at the mission of
the Mountain of Montreal, and, in 1646, this increased to eighty boats
with thirty two thousand pounds of beaver pelts. At this time,
the whole St. Lawrence valley contained only six hundred registered
French and a few hundred engages. This is smaller than one large
Native village. France, at this time, is still not encouraging
immigration to New France. The Crown, however, sent engages or
indentured workmen, bound for thirty-six months before they could
became free. More than half of the several hundred engages who
arrived each year over the next ten years would stay on in the
colony. Many would escape their indenture by becoming Coureurs
April: After years of blockades and sporadic fighting,
(I)-Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) of France attacked
(II)-Charles de La Tour's (1595-1665) French stronghold of Fort Sainte
Marie at St. John, New Brunswick. La Tour was in Boston seeking
help, so his wife (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) with 45 men
held the Fort for three days against the attacking army of 200
men. A Swiss guard was bribed and (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay
(1604-1650) army gained access to the fort. The advancing army
however lost 12 killed and numerous wounded. Francoise agreed to
surrender the fort under condition the garrison would be spared.
Sieur Charnisay (1604-1650) agreed to the terms but upon possession he
executed all the men except one who agreed to be the executioner.
(I)-Menou D'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), went down in the annals of
Acadia as a villain. Francoise being deceived and heart broken at
the slaughter of her people died a few short weeks. It is
noteworthy that Charnisay was a cousin of (I)-Isaac de Razilly
(1587-1636). This civil war effectively ruined both men and
Charnisay was labeled as being hard, cruel and incapable of pity.
He lost all his friends in France.
April 13: (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645)
surrendered Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick, and Menou
d'Aulnay, an arrogant man, of France hanged most of the surviving
Frenchmen. Mme La Tour died soon afterwards. (II)-Charles
La Tour (1595-1665) of Acadia, by 1646, became a fur trader in Kabec;
likely a Coureurs des Boise.
July 14: Peace is arranged by the arrogant Kiotsaton of
the Iroquois, and the French and her allies by (I)-Charles Huault de
August 5: Kabec, five ships arrived the Cardinal at 300
tonnage, the Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage captain Jean Paul Godefroy,
two unnamed ships and the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie
(Montreal) captain Charles Le Gardeur def Tilly.
September 7: The 22 soldiers from the Huron Country returned
with 60 Huron Canoes, laden with beaver. Most if not all soldiers
are involved in the fur trade.
October: Nicolas Giffar is working among the Huron for the
Jesuit since 1641. He agreed this year to work with Master
Zacharie, a carpenter, for the next 5 years and both profit in beaver.
October 17: Chrestiennaut was sent to Three Rivers in the
employ of the Jesuits. He had come to New France in the employ of
Monsieur de Repentigny and was discontented, so he had resolved to
retreat to the woods rather than go back to France. He was not
under written contract.
October 26: Francois Marguerie d-1648 married the daughter of
October 29: Five vessels departed New France with 20,000
pounds weight beaver skins for the habitants and 10,000 for the General
November: Wood is being sold for the first time in Kebec.
November 7: Monsieur de Launay married the daughter of
November 12: Kebec, marriage Nicolas Macard married Marguerite
espouse Jean Nicolet the explorer.
November 15: A notice is posed at Three Rivers that no one is
to trade with the savages. The Jesuit at Kebec are concerned it
might apply to them also.
November 15: Vimont obtains des Chastelets's consent that the
prohibition of trade with the Indians does not apply to the Jesuit fur
trade, but they are told they must carry it out quietly.
November 21: The vessel that operates between Kebec and Three
Rivers was wrecked this year with a loss of 9 men. Much of the
cargo was saved.
November 27: The son of (I)-Jean Gui (Guyon) married the
daughter Monsieur Couillar.
Four marriages, sixteen births and 15 deaths are recorded in Kebec,
(I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) was often in Trois-Rivieres
and is considered a true coureur des bois. He married at least
three times, one being the daughter of one of the Kirke Brothers John
Kirke. He likely had many country wives during his long life in
the country. He had at least 9 known children and became a
citizen of England in 1687.
Peace, Union, and concord have flourished this year in the Island
During a religious procession, one's profession represented their
social standing in the following order: carpenters, masons,
sailors, toolmakers, brewers and bakers, naturally the clergy are
The Superstitions and the Sorcerers (medicine men or sometimes
those not Christian) are banished from Saint Joseph at Sillery, Kabec.
Jesuit (I)-Father Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) arrived in Fort
Kabec. (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier (1618-1696?) had become
a disciple of the Jesuit fathers and is serving as a lay assistant at
their Wendat (Huron) mission near Georgian Bay.
Free-traders are again threatening the viability of the General
Company of New France. The King of France decreed that all trade
goods shall be placed in the public stores and consigned by the Company
merchants. Public stores shall be located at Fort Kabec, Three
Rivers and Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). Any goods imported and
used as trade goods are subject to confiscation and the revoking and
annulling of all passports. Trading of wine and brandy with the
Indians is under penalty of corporal punishment.
(II)-Charles La Tour, (1595-1665) visited Kebec to a hero's welcome,
he had lost but won the hearts of the people and this was not lost on
February 1: Father (I)-Anne de Noue (1587-1646), a
Jesuit of noble birth, left Three Rivers for Fort Richelieu, about 40
miles away, but lost his way, just outside the Fort and perished in the
snow. He was not properly dressed, had no blanket or matches and
ventured out in the middle of the night without a Savage guide.
The balance of his party arrived next day at Fort Richelieu and went in
search of the good Father.
July 8: Charite (1641-1646), a Savage, is buried at the
French cemetery, where her father is buried, implying she is a
September 24: Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) and
(I)-Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit woodsman, set out on another
peace mission. They are abandoned by their Huron guard at Fort
Richelieu. Not taking the hint, they press on and are taken
prisoner by the Iroquois.
September/October: four ships arrived Kebec, the Cardinal at
300 tonnage captain Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the Saint Sauveur
or Neuf at 150 tonnage captain Paul Godefroy, the Petit Saint
Christrophe at 50 tonnage captain I. Richard and the Notre Dame at 250
tonnage for Montreal captain Charles Legardear de Tilly.
October 18: Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) is put
to death, and on October 19, (I)- Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit
woodsman, is put to death by the Mohawk, claiming the Jesuit sorcery
tainted their corn crops and the spread of smallpox. The Wendat
prisoners in the camp confirm their sorcery. The Iroquois
believed that the French intended to destroy the Iroquois as well as
the Wendat. It is noteworthy that the Roman Church considered
sorcery justifiable grounds for execution during this period.
November 13: Two Frenchmen from Ville-Marie (Montreal) are
carried away by the barbarian Iroquois.
Fifteen marriages, nineteen births and eleven deaths are recorded in
Kebec, New France.
Kabec, marriage (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98)
married Helene Martin daughter Abraham Martin; 2nd marriage 1653
Marguerite Hayet a half sister to (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson
(I)-Louis Prud'Homme, a bigamous, married 1647, Quebec to Anne
Archambault, annulled 1651 as had wife in France. Not listed
La Prairie a seigniorial near Montreal was conceded to the Jesuits.
Father Ragueneau, a Jesuit, believes they have been too severe
towards the Wendat: One must be very careful before condemning a
thousand things among their customs, which greatly offend minds brought
up and nourished in another world. It is easy to call irreligion
what is merely stupidity and to take for diabolical working something
that is nothing more than human, and then one thinks he is obliged to
forbid as impious certain things that are done in all innocence or, at
most, are silly but not criminal customs. This was
certainly not the attitude of the other Jesuits. It is noteworthy
that the Wendat found little in the Christian way of life that appealed
to them over their own religion. The Jesuits attacked their most
fundamental belief of freedom. They attempted to undermine the
centuries old religious beliefs of the Indians, thereby destroying
their culture. The French hold their religious beliefs and
cultural beliefs as two separate things; the Wendat held them as one.
Only six Huron (Wendat) arrived Ville-Marie (Montreal) to trade due
to fear of the Iroquois who are roaming the country.
A Frenchman, named Chastillon, urgently desires to marry an Indian
girl educated by the Ursulines but she rejects him as she prefers a
husband of her own people, following the wishes of her parents.
(I)-Menou D'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) died and not a friend
could be found to speak well of him. The words used to describe
him were rapacity, cruelty and tyranny. (II)-Charles La Tour
ventured to France and cleared his name and became absolute monarch of
Acadia. Upon his return he married the widow of (I)-Menou
D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) to secure his position.
February 2: Kabec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Bourdon, Metis,
son (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a
sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.
March: Beer is brewed for the first time at Sillery, Kabec.
March 11: The Saint Lawrence River ice begins to melt at the
end of a 'winterless winter'.
March 27: By Royal decree, the Council of Quebec was
created, comprised of the Governor of New France, Governor of
Ville-Marie (Montreal) and the Jesuit Superior.
June 25: The first horse arrived in Quebec from France
and the Natives called it the French moose. The horse imported as
a gift to Governor de Montmagny by the Compangnie des Habitants, later
June 25: five ships arrived Kebec, one ship with captain
Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the ship Ange Gabriel, the Saint
Francois or Bon at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage and the
Marguerite at 70 tonnage, other ships arrived in August.
June 25: The first horse is brought into Quebec.
June 25: Fort Richelieu is abandoned.
June 25: The priest of the Ursulines attempts to set his own
price on some beaver skins; but these are confiscated, some 200 lbs.,
and taken from his room.
July 16: Father (I)-Jean de Quen (1603-1659) discovered
Lac Saint Jean and the route leading into the interior of
December 3: (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier
(1618-1696?) married Helene Martin, in Fort Quebec and settled down in
Trois Rivieres; being the first wedding in several years (this is not
true). Helene is the daughter of a river pilot, Abraham Martin,
whose land would become known as the Plains of Abraham. Medard's
second marriage after the death of his first wife, is to Marguerite
Hayet, half sister of (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1632-1710).
Pierre Radisson, at age 15, while out on a duck shoot, is captured by
the Mohawks and taken to Lake Champlain. He is adopted by the
tribe and became a white Indian. He and a Algonquin escaped but
were soon captured. The Algonquian is killed and (I)-Pierre
Esprit Radisson (1632-1710) is tortured but rescued by his adoptive
family. He later escaped to the Dutch Fort Orange near Albany,
New York, worked as an interpreter for the Dutch, and then made his way
back to Trois Rivieres- all before turning 21 years old.
December 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis
, died February 5, 1648, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost,
(1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or
Twelve marriages, thirty one births and twenty four deaths are
recorded in Kebec, New France. Some claim the first white child
born in Ville-Marie (Montreal) was Barbe Meusnier. There were 191
births to date in New France, and this might imply the majority are
(II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de Boucherville,
Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicolas
Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married Marie
Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse.
The mission of St. Peter on Manitoulin Island is established for
the Ojibwa. (I)-Louis de Coulonge d'Ailleboust (1612-1660) is
appointed Governor (1648-51) of New France. In Huron Country
there are 19 Jesuit and 42 Frenchmen. The Iroquois Nation
launched a full-scale attack against the Wendat Nation; some 35,000
people. The first series of encounters resulted in 700 Wendat
dead. The Iroquois then turned toward the French Colony.
The citizens of Quebec, this season, are allowed to engage
independently in trade, as the Iroquois had effectively severed normal
Company trade. Father Superior, Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673),
complained that drunkenness at Tadoussac was becoming as bad as in
Germany. It is noteworthy that most Jesuits had wine on their own
Jesuit Missions in Huronia included St. Michel (Scanonaenrat), St
Joseph II (Teanaustaye), St. Ignace I (Taenhatentaron), Ste Marie II,
St. Joseph I (Ihonatiria), La Conception (Ossossane), St. Louis, and
St. Ignace III. Huronia was divided into four clans: the Bear
People (Attignaouantan), the Deer People (Tahontaenrat), the Cord
People (Atinqueenonniahak) and the Rock People (Arendahronon).
(I)-Louis d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge (1612-1660), returned
to New France as Governor, from August 20, 1648 to October 4, 1651, to
replace Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) of
Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). The Jesuits were not pleased with
The Jesuit were fully aware that the faith is usually followed by
afflictions in the country of this new world. The history of
plagues in Europe, taught the Jesuit that they were the carriers of
disease. The disease seized upon them, and followed them into the
vary depths of their great woods, where it destroyed a great number of
them. The Savages believed these French are bringing disease to
The Savages believed those who venture to the Black Robes are going
to seek disease. The Jesuits say such talk is the Devil
inspired. The Jesuit however know that disease is spread from
person to person. The Savage say they are going because the
Jesuit are their only means of commerce and trade.
The Savages said when we obey the Great Manitou (God), my traps for
bears, beavers and other animals never fail. When we abandon our
God, the Savages died of hunger and disease, because they amused
themselves with certain words or certain prayers that were taught to
them. He had a vision and the souls of the baptized and of the
un-baptized go, and that neither heaven nor the pit, but a place
towards the setting sun, where they meet together.
The Jesuit say the disease and famine is nothing compared to the
fires of hell.
The Governor of New France issued a decree (ordinance) that foreign
liquors should not be sold under any circumstances. French
traders had been secretly selling foreign liquor to the Savages.
A second decree commanded was that, without exception , unbelievers and
apostates should withdraw from the abodes of Christians. These
proclamations are read to the Algonquin, Wendat and Montagnais.
This proclamation divided families, reducing their ancestral customs
and traditions and made the people more vulnerable to the Iroquois
advances. The Algonquion prophecy that the French are intent on
destroy the Wendat is again remembered. A Wendat is warned in a
dream to throw down the Frenchmen's bell before it is too late.
The Jesuit speak of the fresh water sea to the west and two other
lakes which are still larger further to the west. Lakes Erie,
Ontario and Niagara Falls is well known.
The Jesuits had established a policy of only selling guns to
baptized Savages and, even with this incentive, only 15% of the Huron
are baptized. The Huron only had 120 guns, whereas the Iroquois
guns numbered 500. The Jesuits forbade converts to participate in
public traditional feasts and celebrations. They were instructed
to abandon all their traditional religious practices which were the
very foundation of their culture. Christian warriors refused to
fight alongside traditionalists. The Huron's ability to defend
themselves was being eroded. Christian warriors were driven from
their wives and mother's longhouses resulting in a rapid increase in
The Iroquois see that the Huron are gravely weakened by the Black
Robes. The Black Robes have brought disease and demoralization to
the Huron Nation. They make plans to attack this once powerful
brother of theirs.
A vessel arrived Kebec with a number of sick which seldom happens.
Two Frenchmen, Francois Marguerie and Jean Amiot drown in the Saint
Lawrence River in plain view of the habitants.
July 4: Father (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) a Jesuit, is
killed by the Iroquois at Teanaostae near Hillsdale, Simco County,
Ontario. Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit
so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed
to the Iroquois.
April 28: Jacques Douart (1626-1648) is killed, by a blow of a
hatchet, at St. Marie, by the Huron. Six Captains had
ordered the killing because the Christians are trying to ruin the
Country, by reproving their faith. At Fort St. Marie are 18
Jesuit Fathers, four coadjutors (assistants), twenty-three donnes
(merchant traders), seven servants, four boys and eight soldiers.
May 18: Two canoe of Hiroquois landed on the Island in sight
of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). Soldiers were sent to
reconnoiter. The Hiroquois said they had war only with the
Algonquians not the French.
August: Kabec, four ships arrived, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage
captain Jean Pointel, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage, the
Saint Georges, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage.
September 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689)
to (II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) baptised, 1636, died August 16,
1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jacques
Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese,
Ten marriages, forty three births and twenty one deaths are
recorded in Kebec, New France. New France has nearly 1,000
(II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain b-1649 son Jean Lamoureux;
married Marguerite Pigarouiche sauvagesse b-1647.
Fishing is almost a total failure in Kebec except for the sturgeon.
Famine is prevalent this year, more than has been since the French
entered Quebec. Fifteen Huron villages have been abandoned.
Jerome Le Rouer (Royer) de la Dauversiere, a co-founder of the
mission of the Mountain of Montreal, is almost bankrupt and his goods
are going to be seized.
Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1606-1649) believed the ruin of the
Huron was clearly part of God's grand design and that now they would
have to work among the more distant nations. It was clear the
Jesuit saw no fault among themselves.
Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) of Toulouse died, having been
unable to learn the language thereby making him most ineffectual.
He also had a great aversion to the customs of these Barbarians.
Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is stationed to
Only a few thousand Wendat remain out of a 30,000 people nation.
An ancestor of the Garneau Clan, (II)-Catherine Annennontak (Huronne),
is born 1649, daughter (I)-Nicholas Arendanki of Arenda, Sainte Marie
Madeleine, La Conception and Jeanne Otrihoandit.
Louis Gaudet Dufont, a Royal Commissioner, concluded that New France
is governed by men without education or experience and that nearly all
were incapable of resolving problems of any consequence.
The Huron culture was in disarray. 50% were converted to
Christianity by the Jesuits. Many non-catholic Huron, being
rejected by their wives longhouses, joined the Iroquois and played a
leading role in taking vengeance against the Jesuits and their
Christian Huron allies. Some 700 Huron died this year or are
captured by the Iroquois/Huron army. Many more Huron would join
the Iroquois against the French. The Jesuits Father (I)-Jean de
Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) were
executed for their crimes against the People. Bruce Trigger
notes: "The situation would have been far worse for the
French if the Huron traditionalists had been able to conclude an
alliance with the Iroquois".
Kebec, a fleet of 6 ships arrived led by admiral Jean Paul Godefroy,
the Cardinal at 300 tonnage, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage
captain Jammes, the Bon-Francois at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250
tonnage, the Anglois and an unnamed ship captain Jean Poulet.
January 1: Three soldiers in prison died of suffocation by the
fumes of charcoal.
January 19: A female of age 15 or 16 is hung at Quebek
(Quebec) for theft and Monsieur (I)-Abraham Martin, dit I'ecossois
(1589-1664) a Scotsman is accused of violating (raping) her. Some
suggest a sixteen year-old girl in Quebec, sentenced to death for
theft, escaped death by acting as her own executioner. Still
others suggest the executioner is a pardoned criminal and the girl is
January 30: There are eighteen Jesuit priests in Wendat
country. The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and
(I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) are killed at St. Louis. The
Iroquois saw the Jesuits as their trading enemies, and one thousand
Iroquois and Hurons attacked Taenhatentaron, killing or capturing
three hundred and ninety Wendat. The Iroquois knew that the
Jesuits longed for martyrdom and they said, mockingly: You see we
are your friends because we will be the cause of your eternal
happiness. The more you suffer the greater will be your reward
from your God. The Huron Nation will be reduced from 25,000 or
30,000 people to about 1,000 this year as a result of their alliance
with the French. In just 40 years a Great Nation is utterly
destroyed. The Jesuits claim the destruction is the will of
God. The Indians do not believe God is a vengeful God, they
rightfully blame the Black Robes and carry this message to the Ojibwa
of the West and beyond. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit
especially Brebeuf are under sentence of death by the Huron Nation for
March 17: Father (I)-Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) a Jesuit,
is killed by the Iroquois at St. Ignace of the Hurons, halfway between
Coldwater and Vasey, Simco County, Ontario. Father Jean de
Brebuef (1593-1649) also is killed this date by the Iroquois.
Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should
not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the
April: An old man, head servant at the warehouse, suspected
of theft, proved to be lost, it is believed he went to drown himself.
June: The Algonquian traded with the Petite Nation returning
via Ville-Marie (Montreal) with their peltry for trade.
June 6: Thirty four Frenchmen departed for Huron Country.
August: Charles Albanel, (1616-1696) a Jesuit arrived Kebec
to serve the Lower Algonquians or Montagnais, at Tadoussac.
September 20: The French traders, soldiers and Indians
descend to Three Rivers and Kebec with 5,000 livres' weight of beaver
skins. This year trade totaled 100,000 livres.
December 7: Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) a Jesuit,
is killed by the Iroquois at Petun Village of St. Jean (Etharita) near
Osprey, Grey County, Ontario. Both the Huron and Iroquois had
vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit
deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois.
December 8: Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) a Jesuit, is
killed by the Christian Huron at the mouth of the Nottawasaga River,
December 11: Trois Riveres, birth (III)-Jacques Boucher,
Metis son (II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de
Boucherville, Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and
Nicolas Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married
Marie Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse.
December 14: Kebec, birth (II)-Ursule Prevost, Metis, died
April 1, 1661, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691)
and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin,
FRENCH HISTORY 1650-1654
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