This Web Site is 100% Canadian
<===   ===>
 [R116] - DENIS, Robert - [www] 
 [Private Reference File Name "rr116.htm"]  
  [Public Reference File Name "r116.htm"] 
 Note Creation 2003.08.17  
  Last Changed 2007.09.21 
<===  Index  ===>

Copied 2007.07.06

NEW FRANCE 1644 -1649
Quebec Culture

The Jesuits are charged with practicing witchcraft



FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX


Roger Williams pushed the principle that Indian religion was as equally acceptable to God
as Christianity was, and even the free thinking puritans considered it heresy.



Four marriages, ten births and nine deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) b-1644, daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married November 27, 1656, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Gilles Lauzon.

Jean Juchereau de la Ferte son Jean Junchereau seignereau du Maure married Marie Francoise, age 11 years, 5 months daughter sieur Giffard.

Rhode Islanders proposed that unity can be achieved by adopting a common principle of religious liberty.  Roger Williams of Rhode Island pushed this principle to the point of heresy among the Puritans when he proclaimed that maybe the Indian religion is equally acceptable to God as with Christianity.

Father d'Endemare wrote:  It is almost impossible to make either peace or war with these barbarians (Iroquois).  Not peace because war is their life, their amusement, and their source of profit all in one.  Not in war because they make themselves invisible to those who seek them and only show themselves when they have heavy odds in their favor.  Go to hunt them in their villages and they fade into the forest.

The Jesuits believed the Huron (Wendat) represented the door to the west, as far as China, that is full of Nations more populous than the Huron.  Towards the south, we see other Peoples beyond number, to whom we can access only by means of this door at which we now stand.

Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) noted that the Captains of the Savages are very poorly obeyed by their People, because they use no violence.  He encouraged them to use sticks on their backs.

Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) ordered the public beating of a Savage for beating his wife for an act of disobedience.  The Jesuit appear unaware that violence begets violence.  

An overly zealous neophyte, at Tadoussac, who shaves his head like the Jesuit, uses a whip of rope to beat the people to prayer, if they do not respond fast enough.

Madame de la Peltrie journied to Tadoussac to wintess the brutalities.

Father Ignace, a Jesuit responsible for the Mission at Tadoussac, represents the most infamous of the Black Robes.  He believed that guided by the Holy Ghost, flagellation and whipping, as a penance, is to be inflected upon the Savages.  The good Father provided the whip and the little children are stripped naked, before the alter of God, to receive up to twenty five blows for their transgressions.  Some children were still at the breast.  Some mothers used their rosaries to beat the children.  The Jesuit considered this perverted practice as a Holy Ceremony.  It is noteworthy that before the Jesuit arrived an Indian never raised a hand to any child, for any reason and the men offered themselves, for punishment, threatened against a French boy.  This perverted European practice is surely the work of the Devil and a clear indication that the Jesuit walk in the Darkness.   It is noteworth that a religious Nun in 2002 in Canada received 8 months in prison for doing the same things as Father Ignace.  Father (I)-Jean De Quen (Dequen) (1603-1659) preceded Father Ignace and condoned the practice, Father (I)-Jacques Buteus (1600-1652) preceded Father (I)-Jean De Quen and also approved of this type of brutality.  The fact that it was published suggests this was a common practice.

Queen Mother Anne of Austria responded to the appeals of the Society of Montreal and sent 60 soldiers to deal with the Iroquois problem.

January:  marriage, Kebec, (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died January 26, 1691 to Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Outchibaha Manikoue, 2nd marriage November 8, 1665 (II)-Marie D'Abancour, b-1618, veuve de Godfroy Guillot.   

March 30:   (I)-Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and 30 settlers repelled a large war party of Iroquois intent on taking Ville-Marie (Montreal).

April 29:   Father (I)-Francesco Gioseppi Bressani (1612-1672) is captured by the Iroquois near Fort Richelieu, at the mouth of the Richelieu River, but escaped and returned to France in November 15.

June:  Kabec, five ships arrived, the Dauphin at 200 tonnage captain Baudouin, the Saint Clement at 120 tonnage captain J. Guyonneau, the Vierge at 120 tonnage captain H. Bourget, an unnamed ship admiral Courdon and the Nortre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

August 29:  Kabec, birth (II)-Anne Bourdon, Metis, died November 4, 1711 Quebec,  daughter (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654. 

September 7:  Twenty two soldiers are dispatched to the Huron Country for one season.

October 8:   Hotel Dieu is opened at Ville-Marie (Montreal) by Jeanne Mance. 

November 3:  Kebec, marriage (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died January 26, 1691 Beauport to Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, b-1626 daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Huron wife and was the adopted child of (I)-Oliver Tardif (Letardif) (1601-1665) and was living with (I)-Guillaume Hubou and Marie Rollet, veuve Louis Hebert.  Others suggest the marriage was January 3, 1644 and the witness were (I)-Oliver Letardiff (1601-1665) and (I)-Quillaume Couillard, d-1663.  Prevost second marriage November 8, 1665 (II)-Marie D'Arancour, b-1618, Veuve October 9, 1639, Kebec, Jean Jolet and veuve October 19, 1651, Kebec, de Godfroy Guillot dit Lavalet.  (II)-Marie was daughter (I)-Adrien D'Abancour, dit Lacaille and Simone D'Orgeville, b-1589, died January 14, 1649. 



Four marriages, ten births and one death are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Antoine Belliveau, b-1621 arrived Acadia, 1645, married 1643 (I)-Marie Andree Guyon.

(I)-Eloi Boileux is at Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Charles Chevalier arrived 1645 Trois Rivieres married a sauvagesse but not named.  One child is recorded (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis, married Quebec, November 4, 1659, Quebec, (II)-Pierre Pinguet, b-1630, died April 22, 1704 Ste. Foye, Quebec. 

New France only contained 600 residents and a few hundred engages (indentured slaves).  In comparison, this is smaller than a single large Iroquois village.  The New France culture, the grand utopian plan of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), just did not appeal to the French citizens.  Freedom was not an option that the Roman Catholic Church was willing to offer.

Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) forbade the Algonquin and Wendat to torture their Iroquois prisoners because they would be disgraced to be outdone in clemency.    Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1636-48) is recalled to France as the colonists and Maisonneuve of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) are not pleased with his governorship.  (I)-Louis d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge et d'Argenteny (born about 1612 Ancy-le-Franc, France died 1660 Ville-Marie (Montreal) became temporary Governor of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) (1645-1646).

(I)-Francois Marguerie, an interpreter, married and settled down at Three Rivers.  Later, (I)-Jean Amyot and (I)-Francois Marguerie are crossing the St. Lawrence River near their homes and are caught in a storm.  Marquerie drown.  (I)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) also settled at Three Rivers.

The Hiroquois were on the Saint Lawrence River on a foray when Simon Pieskaret, a Captain of the Algonquin perceived them, he prepared an ambuscade and captured them, turning them as prisoners to the French.

February:  (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) received word from two Friars that La Tour's fort was only defended by 50 men.  He lost no time in attacking the fort but on first encounter lost 20 men with 13 wounded before he withdrew.

March 6:   The Company of New France agreed to assign its fur trade monopoly to the Kabec based Compagnie des Habirants or Habitants Company.  Fifteen businessmen, frustrated with the Jesuit control of trading, created the Compagne des Habitants, (Habitants Company) reserving its rights of ownership over all fur trade of New France.  The Jesuits suggest the onerous cost of settlement caused the transfer of the Company of New France to the Habitants of New France, but that they retained their seigniorial rights. It is noteworthy that the peasants, servants and slaves were not called inhabitants until the late 17th century.   The French colony established a Canadian Company (Community of the Habitants of New France) to restore the fur trade and finally  received the blessing of the Jesuit.  An overriding royalty of 1,000 pounds of fur is to be paid annually to the old company.  Over sixty Wendat (Huron) boat loads of furs arrived at the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, and, in 1646, this increased to eighty boats with thirty two thousand pounds of beaver pelts.  At this time, the whole St. Lawrence valley contained only six hundred registered French and a few hundred engages.  This is smaller than one large Native village.  France, at this time, is still not encouraging immigration to New France.  The Crown, however, sent engages or indentured workmen, bound for thirty-six months before they could became free.  More than half of the several hundred engages who arrived each year over the next ten years would stay on in the colony.  Many would escape their indenture by becoming Coureurs des Bois.

April:   After years of blockades and sporadic fighting, (I)-Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) of France attacked (II)-Charles de La Tour's (1595-1665) French stronghold of Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick.  La Tour was in Boston seeking help, so his wife (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) with 45 men held the Fort for three days against the attacking army of 200 men.  A Swiss guard was bribed and (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) army gained access to the fort.  The advancing army however lost 12 killed and numerous wounded.  Francoise agreed to surrender the fort under condition the garrison would be spared.  Sieur Charnisay (1604-1650) agreed to the terms but upon possession he executed all the men except one who agreed to be the executioner.  (I)-Menou D'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), went down in the annals of Acadia as a villain.  Francoise being deceived and heart broken at the slaughter of her people died a few short weeks.  It is noteworthy that Charnisay was a cousin of (I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636).  This civil war effectively ruined both men and Charnisay was labeled as being hard, cruel and incapable of pity.  He lost all his friends in France.

April 13:    (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) surrendered Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick, and Menou d'Aulnay, an arrogant man, of France hanged most of the surviving Frenchmen.  Mme La Tour died soon afterwards.  (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) of Acadia, by 1646, became a fur trader in Kabec; likely a Coureurs des Boise.

July 14:   Peace is arranged by the arrogant Kiotsaton of the Iroquois, and the French and her allies by (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653).

August 5:  Kabec, five ships arrived the Cardinal at 300 tonnage, the Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage captain Jean Paul Godefroy, two unnamed ships and the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie (Montreal) captain Charles Le Gardeur def Tilly.

September 7:  The 22 soldiers from the Huron Country returned with 60 Huron Canoes, laden with beaver.  Most if not all soldiers are involved in the fur trade.

October:  Nicolas Giffar is working among the Huron for the Jesuit since 1641.  He agreed this year to work with Master Zacharie, a carpenter, for the next 5 years and both profit in beaver.

October 17:  Chrestiennaut was sent to Three Rivers in the employ of the Jesuits.  He had come to New France in the employ of Monsieur de Repentigny and was discontented, so he had resolved to retreat to the woods rather than go back to France.  He was not under written contract.

October 26:  Francois Marguerie d-1648 married the daughter of Master Zacharie.

October 29:  Five vessels departed New France with 20,000 pounds weight beaver skins for the habitants and 10,000 for the General Company.

November:  Wood is being sold for the first time in Kebec.

November 7:  Monsieur de Launay married the daughter of Pinguent.

November 12:  Kebec, marriage Nicolas Macard married Marguerite espouse Jean Nicolet the explorer.

November 15:  A notice is posed at Three Rivers that no one is to trade with the savages.  The Jesuit at Kebec are concerned it might apply to them also.

November 15:  Vimont obtains des Chastelets's consent that the prohibition of trade with the Indians does not apply to the Jesuit fur trade, but they are told they must carry it out quietly.

November 21:  The vessel that operates between Kebec and Three Rivers was wrecked this year with a loss of 9 men.  Much of the cargo was saved.

November 27:  The son of (I)-Jean Gui (Guyon) married the daughter Monsieur Couillar.



Four marriages, sixteen births and 15 deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) was often in Trois-Rivieres and is considered a true coureur des bois.  He married at least three times, one being the daughter of one of the Kirke Brothers John Kirke.  He likely had many country wives during his long life in the country.  He had at least 9 known children and became a citizen of England in 1687.   

Peace, Union, and concord have flourished this year in the Island of Montreal.

During a religious procession, one's profession represented their social standing in the following order:  carpenters, masons, sailors, toolmakers, brewers and bakers, naturally the clergy are first.   

The Superstitions and the Sorcerers (medicine men or sometimes those not Christian) are banished from Saint Joseph at Sillery, Kabec.

Jesuit (I)-Father Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) arrived in Fort Kabec.  (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier (1618-1696?) had become a disciple of the Jesuit fathers and is serving as a lay assistant at their Wendat (Huron) mission near Georgian Bay.

Free-traders are again threatening the viability of the General Company of New France.  The King of France decreed that all trade goods shall be placed in the public stores and consigned by the Company merchants.  Public stores shall be located at Fort Kabec, Three Rivers and Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal).  Any goods imported and used as trade goods are subject to confiscation and the revoking and annulling of all passports.  Trading of wine and brandy with the Indians is under penalty of corporal punishment.

(II)-Charles La Tour, (1595-1665) visited Kebec to a hero's welcome, he had lost but won the hearts of the people and this was not lost on France.

February 1:   Father (I)-Anne de Noue (1587-1646), a Jesuit of noble birth, left Three Rivers for Fort Richelieu, about 40 miles away, but lost his way, just outside the Fort and perished in the snow.  He was not properly dressed, had no blanket or matches and ventured out in the middle of the night without a Savage guide.  The balance of his party arrived next day at Fort Richelieu and went in search of the good Father.  

July 8:  Charite (1641-1646), a Savage, is buried at the French cemetery, where her father is buried, implying she is a Metis. 

September 24:   Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) and (I)-Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit woodsman, set out on another peace mission.  They are abandoned by their Huron guard at Fort Richelieu. Not taking the hint, they press on and are taken prisoner by the Iroquois.  

September/October:  four ships arrived Kebec, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage captain Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the Saint Sauveur or Neuf at 150 tonnage captain Paul Godefroy, the Petit Saint Christrophe at 50 tonnage captain I. Richard and the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage for Montreal captain Charles Legardear de Tilly.

October 18:   Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) is put to death, and on October 19, (I)- Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit woodsman, is put to death by the Mohawk, claiming the Jesuit sorcery tainted their corn crops and the spread of smallpox.  The Wendat prisoners in the camp confirm their sorcery.  The Iroquois believed that the French intended to destroy the Iroquois as well as the Wendat.  It is noteworthy that the Roman Church considered sorcery  justifiable grounds for execution during this period.

November 13:  Two Frenchmen from Ville-Marie (Montreal) are carried away by the barbarian Iroquois.



Fifteen marriages, nineteen births and eleven deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Kabec, marriage (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) married Helene Martin daughter Abraham Martin; 2nd marriage 1653 Marguerite Hayet a half sister to (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1636-1710).

(I)-Louis Prud'Homme, a bigamous, married 1647, Quebec to Anne Archambault, annulled 1651 as had wife in France.  Not listed Tanguay.

La Prairie a seigniorial near Montreal was conceded to the Jesuits.

Father Ragueneau, a Jesuit, believes they have been too severe towards the Wendat:  One must be very careful before condemning a thousand things among their customs, which greatly offend minds brought up and nourished in another world.  It is easy to call irreligion what is merely stupidity and to take for diabolical working something that is nothing more than human, and then one thinks he is obliged to forbid as impious certain things that are done in all innocence or, at most, are silly but not criminal customs.   This was certainly not the attitude of the other Jesuits.  It is noteworthy that the Wendat found little in the Christian way of life that appealed to them over their own religion.  The Jesuits attacked their most fundamental belief of freedom.  They attempted to undermine the centuries old religious beliefs of the Indians, thereby destroying their culture.  The French hold their religious beliefs and cultural beliefs as two separate things; the Wendat held them as one.

Only six Huron (Wendat) arrived Ville-Marie (Montreal) to trade due to fear of the Iroquois who are roaming the country.

A Frenchman, named Chastillon, urgently desires to marry an Indian girl educated by the Ursulines but she rejects him as she prefers a husband of her own people, following the wishes of her parents.

(I)-Menou D'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) died and not a friend could be found to speak well of him.  The words used to describe him were rapacity, cruelty and tyranny.  (II)-Charles La Tour ventured to France and cleared his name and became absolute monarch of Acadia.  Upon his return he married the widow of (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) to secure his position.

February 2:  Kabec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Bourdon, Metis, son (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654. 

March:  Beer is brewed for the first time at Sillery, Kabec.

March 11:  The Saint Lawrence River ice begins to melt at the end of a 'winterless winter'.

March 27:   By Royal decree, the Council of Quebec was created, comprised of the Governor of New France, Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and the Jesuit Superior.

June 25:   The first horse arrived in Quebec from France and the Natives called it the French moose.  The horse imported as a gift to Governor de Montmagny by the Compangnie des Habitants, later disappeared.

June 25:  five ships arrived Kebec, one ship with captain Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the ship Ange Gabriel, the Saint Francois or Bon at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage and the Marguerite at 70 tonnage, other ships arrived in August.

June 25:  The first horse is brought into Quebec.

June 25:  Fort Richelieu is abandoned.

June 25:  The priest of the Ursulines attempts to set his own price on some beaver skins; but these are confiscated, some 200 lbs., and taken from his room.  

July 16:   Father (I)-Jean de Quen (1603-1659) discovered Lac Saint Jean and the route leading into the interior of Saguenay.  

December 3:   (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier (1618-1696?) married Helene Martin, in Fort Quebec and settled down in Trois Rivieres; being the first wedding in several years (this is not true).  Helene is the daughter of a river pilot, Abraham Martin, whose land would become known as the Plains of Abraham.  Medard's second marriage after the death of his first wife, is to Marguerite Hayet, half sister of (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1632-1710).  Pierre Radisson, at age 15, while out on a duck shoot, is captured by the Mohawks and taken to Lake Champlain.  He is adopted by the tribe and became a white Indian.  He and a Algonquin escaped but were soon captured.  The Algonquian is killed and (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1632-1710) is tortured but rescued by his adoptive family.  He later escaped to the Dutch Fort Orange near Albany, New York, worked as an interpreter for the Dutch, and then made his way back to Trois Rivieres- all before turning 21 years old.

December 21:  Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis , died February 5, 1648, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 




Twelve marriages, thirty one births and twenty four deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.  Some claim the first white child born in Ville-Marie (Montreal) was Barbe Meusnier.  There were 191 births to date in New France, and this might imply the majority are Metis. 

(II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de Boucherville, Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicolas Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married Marie Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse.

The mission of St. Peter on Manitoulin Island is established for the Ojibwa.  (I)-Louis de Coulonge d'Ailleboust (1612-1660) is appointed Governor (1648-51) of New France.  In Huron Country there are 19 Jesuit and 42 Frenchmen.  The Iroquois Nation launched a full-scale attack against the Wendat Nation; some 35,000 people.  The first series of encounters resulted in 700 Wendat dead.  The Iroquois then turned toward the French Colony.  The citizens of Quebec, this season, are allowed to engage independently in trade, as the Iroquois had effectively severed normal Company trade.  Father Superior, Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), complained that drunkenness at Tadoussac was becoming as bad as in Germany.  It is noteworthy that most Jesuits had wine on their own tables.

Jesuit Missions in Huronia included St. Michel (Scanonaenrat), St Joseph II (Teanaustaye), St. Ignace I (Taenhatentaron), Ste Marie II, St. Joseph I (Ihonatiria), La Conception (Ossossane), St. Louis, and St. Ignace III.  Huronia was divided into four clans: the Bear People (Attignaouantan), the Deer People (Tahontaenrat), the Cord People (Atinqueenonniahak) and the Rock People (Arendahronon). 

(I)-Louis d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge (1612-1660), returned to New France as Governor, from August 20, 1648 to October 4, 1651, to replace Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal).  The Jesuits were not pleased with his removal.

The Jesuit were fully aware that the faith is usually followed by afflictions in the country of this new world.  The history of plagues in Europe, taught the Jesuit that they were the carriers of disease.  The disease seized upon them, and followed them into the vary depths of their great woods, where it destroyed a great number of them.  The Savages believed these French are bringing disease to the People.  

The Savages believed those who venture to the Black Robes are going to seek disease.  The Jesuits say such talk is the Devil inspired.  The Jesuit however know that disease is spread from person to person.  The Savage say they are going because the Jesuit are their only means of commerce and trade.  

The Savages said when we obey the Great Manitou (God), my traps for bears, beavers and other animals never fail.  When we abandon our God, the Savages died of hunger and disease, because they amused themselves with certain words or certain prayers that were taught to them.  He had a vision and the souls of the baptized and of the un-baptized go, and that neither heaven nor the pit, but a place towards the setting sun, where they meet together.

The Jesuit say the disease and famine is nothing compared to the fires of hell.

The Governor of New France issued a decree (ordinance) that foreign liquors should not be sold under any circumstances.  French traders had been secretly selling foreign liquor to the Savages.  A second decree commanded was that, without exception , unbelievers and apostates should withdraw from the abodes of Christians.  These proclamations are read to the Algonquin, Wendat and Montagnais.  This proclamation divided families, reducing their ancestral customs and traditions and made the people more vulnerable to the Iroquois advances.  The Algonquion prophecy that the French are intent on destroy the Wendat is again remembered.  A Wendat is warned in a dream to throw down the Frenchmen's bell before it is too late.

The Jesuit speak of the fresh water sea to the west and two other lakes which are still larger further to the west.  Lakes Erie, Ontario and Niagara Falls is well known.

The Jesuits had established a policy of only selling guns to baptized Savages and, even with this incentive, only 15% of the Huron are baptized.  The Huron only had 120 guns, whereas the Iroquois guns numbered 500.  The Jesuits forbade converts to participate in public traditional feasts and celebrations.  They were instructed to abandon all their traditional religious practices which were the very foundation of their culture.  Christian warriors refused to fight alongside traditionalists.  The Huron's ability to defend themselves was being eroded.  Christian warriors were driven from their wives and mother's longhouses resulting in a rapid increase in divorces.

The Iroquois see that the Huron are gravely weakened by the Black Robes.  The Black Robes have brought disease and demoralization to the Huron Nation.  They make plans to attack this once powerful brother of theirs.

A vessel arrived Kebec with a number of sick which seldom happens.

Two Frenchmen, Francois Marguerie and Jean Amiot drown in the Saint Lawrence River in plain view of the habitants.

July 4:  Father (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at Teanaostae near Hillsdale, Simco County, Ontario.  Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois. 

April 28:  Jacques Douart (1626-1648) is killed, by a blow of a hatchet, at St. Marie, by the Huron.  Six  Captains had ordered the killing because the Christians are trying to ruin the Country, by reproving their faith.  At Fort St. Marie are 18 Jesuit Fathers, four coadjutors (assistants), twenty-three donnes (merchant traders), seven servants, four boys and eight soldiers.

May 18:  Two canoe of Hiroquois landed on the Island in sight of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal).  Soldiers were sent to reconnoiter.  The Hiroquois said they had war only with the Algonquians not the French.

August:  Kabec, four ships arrived, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage captain Jean Pointel, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage, the Saint Georges, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage.

September 28:  Quebec, marriage (I)-Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) to (II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); 





Ten marriages, forty three births and twenty one deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.  New France has nearly 1,000 inhabitants.

(II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain b-1649 son Jean Lamoureux; married Marguerite Pigarouiche sauvagesse b-1647.

Fishing is almost a total failure in Kebec except for the sturgeon.

Famine is prevalent this year, more than has been since the French entered Quebec.  Fifteen Huron villages have been abandoned.

Jerome Le Rouer (Royer) de la Dauversiere, a co-founder of the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, is almost bankrupt and his goods are going to be seized.

Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1606-1649) believed the ruin of the Huron was clearly part of God's grand design and that now they would have to work among the more distant nations.  It was clear the Jesuit saw no fault among themselves.

Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) of Toulouse died, having been unable to learn the language thereby making him most ineffectual.  He also had a great aversion to the customs of these Barbarians.

Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is stationed to Tadoussac, Quebec.
Only a few thousand Wendat remain out of a 30,000 people nation.
An ancestor of the Garneau Clan, (II)-Catherine Annennontak (Huronne), is born 1649, daughter (I)-Nicholas Arendanki of Arenda, Sainte Marie Madeleine, La Conception and Jeanne Otrihoandit.

Louis Gaudet Dufont, a Royal Commissioner, concluded that New France is governed by men without education or experience and that nearly all were incapable of resolving problems of any consequence.  

The Huron culture was in disarray. 50% were converted to Christianity by the Jesuits.  Many non-catholic Huron, being rejected by their wives longhouses, joined the Iroquois and played a leading role in taking vengeance against the Jesuits and their Christian Huron allies.  Some 700 Huron died this year or are captured by the Iroquois/Huron army.  Many more Huron would join the Iroquois against the French.  The Jesuits Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) were executed  for their crimes against the People.  Bruce Trigger notes:  "The situation would have been far worse for the French if the Huron traditionalists had been able to conclude an alliance with the Iroquois".

Kebec, a fleet of 6 ships arrived led by admiral Jean Paul Godefroy, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage captain Jammes, the Bon-Francois at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage, the Anglois and an unnamed ship captain Jean Poulet.

January 1:  Three soldiers in prison died of suffocation by the fumes of charcoal.

January 19:  A female of age 15 or 16 is hung at Quebek (Quebec) for theft and Monsieur (I)-Abraham Martin, dit I'ecossois (1589-1664) a Scotsman is accused of violating (raping) her.  Some suggest a sixteen year-old girl in Quebec, sentenced to death for theft, escaped death by acting as her own executioner.  Still others suggest the executioner is a pardoned criminal and the girl is hung.

January 30:  There are eighteen Jesuit priests in Wendat country.  The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) are killed at St. Louis.  The Iroquois saw the Jesuits as their trading enemies, and one thousand Iroquois and Hurons  attacked Taenhatentaron, killing or capturing three hundred and ninety Wendat.  The Iroquois knew that the Jesuits longed for martyrdom and they said, mockingly:  You see we are your friends because we will be the cause of your eternal happiness.  The more you suffer the greater will be your reward from your God.  The Huron Nation will be reduced from 25,000 or 30,000 people to about 1,000 this year as a result of their alliance with the French.  In just 40 years a Great Nation is utterly destroyed.  The Jesuits claim the destruction is the will of God.  The Indians do not believe God is a vengeful God, they rightfully blame the Black Robes and carry this message to the Ojibwa of the West and beyond.  It is noteworthy that the Jesuit especially Brebeuf are under sentence of death by the Huron Nation for evil activities.

March 17:  Father (I)-Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at St. Ignace of the Hurons, halfway between Coldwater and Vasey, Simco County, Ontario.  Father Jean de Brebuef (1593-1649) also is killed this date by the Iroquois.  Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois. 

April:  An old man, head servant at the warehouse, suspected of theft, proved to be lost, it is believed he went to drown himself.

June:  The Algonquian traded with the Petite Nation returning via Ville-Marie (Montreal) with their peltry for trade.

June 6:  Thirty four Frenchmen departed for Huron Country.

August:  Charles Albanel, (1616-1696) a Jesuit arrived Kebec to serve the Lower Algonquians or Montagnais, at Tadoussac.

September 20:  The French traders, soldiers and Indians descend to Three Rivers and Kebec with 5,000 livres' weight of beaver skins.  This year trade totaled 100,000 livres. 

December 7:  Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at Petun Village of St. Jean (Etharita) near Osprey, Grey County, Ontario.  Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois. 

December 8:  Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Christian Huron at the mouth of the Nottawasaga River, Ontario. 

December 11:  Trois Riveres, birth (III)-Jacques Boucher, Metis son (II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de Boucherville, Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicolas Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married Marie Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse.

December 14:  Kebec, birth (II)-Ursule Prevost, Metis, died April 1, 1661,  Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 



Back to Top


FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX

<===  Index  ===>
Web Page Created And Maintained By BINARIUS Inc - 
This Web Site is 100% Canadian