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NEW FRANCE 1600 - 1605
Settlement of New France begins
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The Europeans, having depleted their own resources,
look to the colonies as suppliers of these resources, not as
Nations of People.
The first act of the French is to attempt to impose a trade
monopoly on the free trade practice of America.
The French are treated with friendliness and hospitality by the
yet the French still label the Indians as savages?
It is often said that the first inhabitants of New
LES COUREURS DES BOIS
because they are an un-submissive people.
It is noteworthy that the terms race and racism
did not appear until this century.
Keep this in mind as you read this early Canadian history.
Also remember that racism is well and alive into the 21st century.
Science has tried for four hundred years to prove a biological basis
to support racism, but has failed to do so.
A merchant of St. Malo, named (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (
Pontgrave) (1554-1629), with (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1602)
and with four ships and sixteen colonists, established a settlement at
Tadoussac (meaning nipples or breasts). They built a trading
house. Tadoussac is a well-established fur trading and wintering
site at the mouth of the Saguenay River. About 1,000 Algonkin,
Etchiman and Montagnais descend on Tadoussac each year to trade.
Pont and Chauven returned to France in the autumn with a cargo of furs,
leaving sixteen men at Tadoussac. Eleven died that winter, and
the rest went to live with the savages (native people) who were called
the Montagnais Naskapi. Others suggest the Montagnais saved the
remaining 5 men. The Montagnais had been trading with the
Europeans for over fifty years. It is interesting that people who
provide refuge during a time of need are classified as savage.
This over used, European term 'savage' carried a powerful hidden
meaning. On the surface it means an uncultivated, untamed,
barbarous, crude, cruel person who is without civilization. Its
hidden meaning is that a savage is less than human and therefore has
few, if any, inherent rights.
Early and often, casual unions between European fishermen, traders,
lumberjacks and Native women from Acadia to Labrador produced uncounted
progeny who matured as Natives among their maternal relatives.
Many would become known as Malouidit because so many of the fathers
originated from St. Milo on the Brittany coast of France. Many
others would become known as capitaines des sauvages.
The Native People had names for these European peoples:
The Europeans in general were called Wayabishkiwad by
the Ojibwa; meaning white skin. The Delaware used Woapsit for
The Europeans were Kiowa Bedalpago; meaning hairy mouth, others called
them Takai; meaning his ears stick out.
Later the Americans were designated as big knife or long knife.
The French were Wameqtikosiu or builders of wooden ships
The English were Wautacone or coat men
The German and Dutch were Yah Yah Algeh for those who talk ya ya.
The Scotts were called Kentahere by the Mohawk which referred to the
type of hat they wore, reminding them of a buffalo cow and her
The Negroes were Madawiyas of black flesh or black face.
The Chinese were Gooktlam for their pig tails.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and (I)-Pierre Chauvin de
Tonnetuit visited Acadia to determine a location for the first
permanent French Huguenot settlement in America. They founded a
Huguenot base at Tadoussac, Quebec.
The Roman Catholic Church, at this time, would not allow Huguenots
to immigrate to New France. As a result, no official French
colony was established in Canada until after 1600- or so they
claimed. The reality is that no Protestants or Jews were allowed
into New France according to official proclamations.
(I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) sent the Esperance, a
supply ship, to Tadoussac, Quebec and found five of the 12 colonists
alive. As a result, Chauvin and Pont would lose their position in
New France. Others suggest (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit
(d-1602) and company built 20 buildings this season
The Malecite (Maliseet) People alias Souriquois, lived in New
Brunswick west of the St. John River and some believe they are Metis
being decedents of Indian and European fishermen, especially the
Basque. They are linked to the Algonquian linguistic family but
some suggest 1/2 the original Malecite spoke 1/2 basque. It is
noteworthy that the Malecite and Etchemin People are not indigenous to
Acadia and only arrived this century. Malecite and Etchemin are
believed to be the same Peoples. These People live in small
houses and dress like Europeans. They are fair skinned as
compared to the other Indians.
John Smith in search of the northwest passage, sailing from
Jamestown explored the Chesapeake Bay area.
March: George Waymouth sailed from England for Virginia to
reconnoiter a site for settlement. He then sailed north and made
landfall off Nantucket Island, then off the Maine coast. He
anchored off Monhegan Island and sent expeditions up the St. George and
Kennebec Rivers. He kidnapped five Abenaki slaves and returned to
France sent 16 ships to New France this season.
A supply ship was sent out to Sable Island, the first in two years
and only found eleven remaining colonists.
Peter Easton, a privateer in Queen Elizabeth the 1st's navy, lost
his commission and turned to piracy from 1602 to 1615. By 1610 he
commanded 1,400 men and 10 well-equipped warships. His
headquarters was in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland. It is estimated
his personal fortunate was close to $600 million Canadian.
(I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) traveled to Tadoussac,
Quebec and brought two Natives to France.
George Weymouth ventured to the Hudson Strait looking for the North
West Passage to India for the East India Company, returning to England
on September 5.
Sheila Nagaira of Ireland is captured by the Dutch who in turn are
captured by the English Captain Peter Easton who was on his way to
Newfoundland. During the voyage Sheila fell in love with Gilbert
Pike and were married aboard ship. The settled into Mosquito in
Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo, governor Florida sent Juan de Lara to
investigate if the Spanish soldiers from New Mexico had reached Tama
(Milledgeville, Georgia). It is not recorded if the overland
expedition from New Mexico reached Tama.
Bartholomew Gosnold (1572-1607) of England with a crew of 31 sailed
to southern Maine to Narragansett Bay. He sailed to Cape Cod into
Nantucket Sound. He then built a fort on Elizabeth's Isle, now
called Cuttyhunk and explored the north shore of Buzzard's Bay.
February: (I)-Aymer de Chaste d-1603 is named Lieutenant
General of New France by King Henri IV of France. He is
commissioned to establish a colony and is given a trading
monopoly. He formed the De Chaste Trading Company.
April: (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) sailed
with two ships to trade for furs at Tadoussac, Quebec.
France sent 80 vessels or boats to Newfoundland and New France this
(I)-Aymar de Chaste (d-1603) had obtained the trading monopoly for
New France, Newfoundland and Larcadie (Acadie) in 1602 and had
(I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) appointed as his representative
in New France.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) received royal patents for
the colonization, commercial exploitation and government of Acadia for
the next ten years. He would learn the Royal patents were
worthless as the Basques ignored them and made off with most of the fur
(I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727) is with (I)-Samuel de Champlain
(1567-1635) this year.
Acadie (Acadia) appears to be a Micmac or Mi'-Kmaq name
meaning place of plenty. Others suggest (I)-Pont-Grave of St.
Milo (1554-1629) had obtained the same authority of Marquis de la Roche
and sent 3 barks that arrived safely in Acadian waters.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) published his 80 page
"Des Sauvages" and freely admits that many people have
written about Canada before he set down his account in 1603. What
he doesn't admit is his habit of recording the observations of others
as his own without giving credit. This is fairly obvious in his
brief narrative of 1599. It is noteworthy that the French and
Basques had been fishing the St. Lawrence for the past 100 years and
provided him with valuable navigation information. He met another
Basque fisherman at Tor Bay, Nova Scotia who said he had been coming
there since 1563. This fisherman in the ship Savalette that
his father also fished this area as did his grandfather. Jacques
Cartier (1491-1557) confirmed in 1535 that fishermen had indeed
preceded him to America. It is noteworthy that Champlain
chose the word Savage rather than Indian to describe the peoples of the
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) records the story of the
Mi'-Kmaq (Micmac) concerning Gougou a 200 foot colossal woman who wades
through the waters off Canada's east coast catching unwary
March 15: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) of the
De Chaste Trading Company sailed for New France from Honfleur, France
and allowed (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to join his
May 13: (I)-Aymar de Chaste (died May 13) and France
granted (I)-Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts (1558-1628), the New France
May 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) landed on the east
coast of Nova Scotia (Acadia) and called the spot La Heve. Down
the coast they encountered Jean Rossignol, a Spanard who was trading
with the Indians. Champlain considered this illegal activity and
seized the furs and his ship. In recognition of this event he
named the area Port Rossignol.
May 24: The two ships of the De Chaste Trading Company
are anchored at the mouth of the Saguenay River near Tadoussac,
Quebec. The Montagnis Tabagies festivals were being conducted at
this time in this ancient trading location. They had ten kettles,
likely received in trade, filled with moose, bear, seal and beaver,
positioned twenty feet apart. Anadabijou and 80-100 savages
attended the Tabagies. They had no French manners and ate with
their fingers, which they wiped on themselves or on their hunting dogs.
May 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is told that
the Etchemins, the Algonkins and the Montagnais- numbering 1,000 men-
had warred against the Iroquois at the mouth of the Iroquois River and
had killed and scalped a hundred of them. Anadaabijou said that
they had to rely wholly on surprise, for they are outnumbered by the
Iroquois and wouldn't dare to attack them openly. This sounds
more like exaggeration in an attempt to impress the French in order to
demonstrate what they had to offer the French for an alliance.
Champlain also believed them to be great liars (exaggeration of the
June 9: Tadoussac, at this time, numbered 1,000 men,
women and children. Dancing (the girls at times naked) , races,
feasting and gift giving is evident. Champlain discovered that
they believed in the Great Spirit who created all things including the
world and the people. They believe in the immortality of the
June 11: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by
(I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored up the Saguenay River for 35
miles. They then journeyed up the St Lawrence River looking for
Stadacona, but there was no sign of the village. The Savages told
them of the saltwater Bay of the North, and Champlain believed it to be
part of the Atlantic Ocean.
June 24: On the Sainte Croix River, on an Island (I)-Samuel de
Champlain (1567-1635) established a colony of 79 people but 35 died of
scurvy the first winter. This is hard to believe as European
sailor have know how to treat scurvy for over a thousand years,
especially using the herb alexanders. It was some times called
Scotch lovage or sea lovage.
June 29: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by
(I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored Lac Saint Pierre and entered the
mouth of the Richelieu River. They journeyed up the river to the
Saint Pours Rapids and learned from the Savages of other lakes upstream
which were later named Lake Champlain and Lake George. They were
also told of the Great River that leads down to the coast of Florida,
but more likely the Hudson River that empties at New York.
July 11: By canoe, the party went to Sault Saint Louis
or Lachine Rapids and the site of Hochelaga (Montreal), which no longer
existed, and met with several bands of Algonquian. Everyone tells
them of the great rivers and gigantic lakes. The savages described
Niagara Falls, Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, as well as the Detroit
River to the St. Lawrence. He did not report encounters
with the Iroquois as the Algonquian had displaced them to the
south. Champlain believed the Three Rivers area would make an
ideal place for settlement. He also believed in the monster
Gougou, as he did of the dragons of Mexico. He also believed you
could hardly hope to find a more beautiful country than
September 20: The De Caste Trading Company expedition
returned to France and learned of the death of Chastes on May 13, 1603.
November 8: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628),
Governor of Acadia and owner of the fur trade monopoly of New France,
for the next 10 years engaged (I)-Francois Graves and (I)-Samuel de
Champlain (1567-1635), from 1604 to 1607, to search for the best
location to establish a fur trading post before settling on Stadacona
(Quebec city) which is a historic Native trading location.
The venture is funded by Calvinists, as there are none among the Roman
Orthodox with whom they could bargain. It is noteworthy that
Cartier did not share the knowledge of avoiding scurvy, and it plagued
the de Monts Acadian venture.
November 15: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)
published his account of Des Sauvages. These friendly, hospitable
people told (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Great
Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi River system leading to the Gulf
of Mexico. It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain
(1567-1635) used an unnamed interpreter to converse with the
The war with Spain made it difficult, if not impossible, to
establish colonies in America until this time.
The Norman, Basque and Breton fisherman are regularly fishing for
cod on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and along the coast of Nova
Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt, arrived Acadia with an
expedition, staying until 1607.
The Saint Lawrence River (Quebec) was rejected as a possible French
colony site because of the great number of free traders using that area
and because they refused to yield to a French monopoly.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) named Prince Edward Island,
Ile de Saint Jean.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) sailed to La Heve (Halifax)
Acadia and discovered a vessel whose Captain is named Rossignol and he
captured the ship as a violation of his territory. The secular
Priest Nicolas Aubrey went ashore at St Mary's Bay and became lost but
turned up 17 days later. Sieur De Poutrincourt of Picardies
obtained a grant for Port Royal from (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont
(1558-1628) that was later confirmed by the French King.
February: The De Monts Trading Company is formed to fur
trade and colonize New France. Members include de Monts, du Pont
and de Champlain.
March: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) commanded 4 ships
with both Catholic and Huguenots but only Catholics are allowed to
evangelize the savages. Two ships were to go to Tadousac and two
ships to Acadia.
March 7: The De Monts Trading Company sent du Pont from
Havre de Grace, France to New France. Swiss guards were members
of the first French expedition to launch a colony in Acadia.
March 10: The De Monts Trading Company sent (I)-Pierre
Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) to Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
May 13: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), of the
de Monts Trading Company, named Port au Mouton (Port Mouton, Nova
Scotia) because a sheep had jumped overboard. Meanwhile
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and Jean Ralluau explored the
coast as far as the Bay of Fundy. De Monts and (I)-Samuel de
Champlain (1567-1635) explored in a longboat, looking for the site for
a settlement and for mineral deposits discovered in 1603 by de Prevert.
June: The French wintered on an island in the St. Croix River, Nova
Scotia, marking the beginning of Acadia. St. Croix Island
actually is in the the St. Croix River that separates New Brunswick and
Maine but is eventually claimed by Maine. The Colony was attacked
by a certain malady called the mal de la terre (scurvy). The
majority of them could not rise nor move and could not even be raised
up on their feet without falling down in a swoon, so that out of 79 who
composed our party, 35 died and more than 20 were on the point of
death. They opened several of them to determine the cause of
their illness (performed autopsies). De Monts, a military
man, said the decisive factor of location was that it could be made
secure from attacks by the Indians.
June 24: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) and
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) skirted the New Brunswick
shore and entered the Saint John River then continued westward along
the coast until they reached a desolate, sandy Island which de Monts
named Ile Sainte Croix. They built a palisade, houses for 80
colonists, and planted wheat (rye). The Island had no fresh water
or firewood, which indicates their level of incompetence. They
would pay a terrible price for this mistake. (I)-Guillaume des
Champs and (I)-Maitre Etienne also practiced medicine.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua Monsieur de Monts was a Huguenot and expected the
promised religious freedom but received orders to convert the Natives
to the Catholic faith. The first resident, Christian
missionary is Father (I)-Nicholas Aubry, a secular priest who, with
thirty-six other immigrants, died of scurvy during the first winter.
October 2: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returned to St.
Croix Island, the dwellings were completed and 4 days later the snow
began to fall. The storehouse had no cellar and air that entered
through the cracks was more severe than that out side. Ice flow
cut them off from a wood supply. Champlain wrote the colony was
hit by landsickness (scurvy)- - of 79 of us, 35 died, and more than 20
were very near it - - we could find no remedy with which to cure this
malady. A group of eleven remained well - - a jolly company of
hunters who preferred rabbit hunting to the air of the fireside;
skating on ponds, to turning over lazy in bed; making snow balls to
bring down the game, to sitting around the fire talking about Paris and
its good cooks.
The Danes hire the Englishman James Hall to make a trip to Terra
Nova. He seized three Eskimos, along with their kayaks, as
Grand-Pre, Acadia was first settled in 1605 through 150 years to the
deportation in 1755 when it was burned to the ground by the British.
Francisco Fernandez de Ecija is dispatched by the governor of
Florida to investigate an Anglo-French exploring and trading
expedition. In Saint Helna Sound on the Carolina coast, he
captured the expeditions two ships.
June 18: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company,
sailed south as far as Massachusetts Bay and Nauset Harbour,
Massachusetts, searching for a better site for their colony. He
visited Cape Cod, hoping to establish a French colony here, but
abandoned the idea because too many people already lived there.
When they returned, the St. Croix river settlement was already
dismantled and moved to Port Royal, Acadia. A new supply ship had
arrived from France with 40 new colonists.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) discovered that the
savages were growing 'sunchokes' in their vegetable gardens and thought
they tasted like Artichokes. The People however called them 'sun
Fort Port Royal (1605-1613)
The French trading post of St. Croix River moved
across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Acadia.
September: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628)
returns to France to attend to finances, leaving (I)-Francois Grave du
Pont (1554-1629) in charge of the Monts Trading Company. A storm
blew de Monts landward where five men disembarked at Cape Cod and 4 are
killed by the savages. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)
was commissioned to conduct exploration. The forty some men who
remained behind planted gardens and built a pond with trout. A
Roman Catholic and a Protestant Huguenot minister are among those who
remained. These clerics even came to blows at times, but scurvy
claimed them both at the same time. They are buried in a common
grave to see if they could rest in peace when dead. The
outlay exceeded the receipts and, thereby, doomed the venture.
The French had failed to either establish sufficient trading
relationships with the Natives or discover harbors suitable for
settlement. They blamed the Natives for being uncivilized.
They contend the people of the interior are more civilized. The
Company grant is revoked, they say because of the jealousy and
importunity of certain Basque and Briton merchants.
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