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NEW FRANCE 1600 - 1605
Quebec Culture

Settlement of New France begins



FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX


The Europeans, having depleted their own resources, 
look to the colonies as suppliers of these resources, not as Nations of People. 

The first act of the French is to attempt to impose a trade monopoly on the free trade practice of America.
The French are treated with friendliness and hospitality by the Indians,
yet the French still label the Indians as savages?

It is often said that the first inhabitants of New France are
because they are an un-submissive people.

It is noteworthy that the terms race and racism did not appear until this century.
Keep this in mind as you read this early Canadian history.
Also remember that racism is well and alive into the 21st century.
Science has tried for four hundred years to prove a biological basis
to support racism, but has failed to do so.




A merchant of St. Malo, named (I)-Francois Grave du Pont ( Pontgrave) (1554-1629), with (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1602) and with four ships and sixteen colonists, established a settlement at Tadoussac (meaning nipples or breasts).  They built a trading house.  Tadoussac is a well-established fur trading and wintering site at the mouth of the Saguenay River.  About 1,000 Algonkin, Etchiman and Montagnais descend on Tadoussac each year to trade.  Pont and Chauven returned to France in the autumn with a cargo of furs, leaving sixteen men at Tadoussac.  Eleven died that winter, and the rest went to live with the savages (native people) who were called the Montagnais Naskapi.  Others suggest the Montagnais saved the remaining 5 men.  The Montagnais had been trading with the Europeans for over fifty years.  It is interesting that people who provide refuge during a time of need are classified as savage.  This over used, European term 'savage' carried a powerful hidden meaning.  On the surface it means an uncultivated, untamed, barbarous, crude, cruel person who is without civilization.  Its hidden meaning is that a savage is less than human and therefore has few, if any, inherent rights.

Early and often, casual unions between European fishermen, traders, lumberjacks and Native women from Acadia to Labrador produced uncounted progeny who matured as Natives among their maternal relatives.  Many would become known as Malouidit because so many of the fathers originated from St. Milo on the Brittany coast of France.  Many others would become known as capitaines des sauvages. 

The Native People had names for these European peoples:

The Europeans in general were called Wayabishkiwad by the Ojibwa; meaning white skin.  The Delaware used Woapsit for white skin.
The Europeans were Kiowa Bedalpago; meaning hairy mouth, others called them Takai; meaning his ears stick out.

Later the Americans were designated as big knife or long knife.

The French were Wameqtikosiu or builders of wooden ships
The English were Wautacone or coat men
The German and Dutch were Yah Yah Algeh for those who talk ya ya.
The Scotts were called Kentahere by the Mohawk which referred to the type of hat they wore, reminding them of a buffalo cow and her droppings.
The Negroes were Madawiyas of black flesh or black face.
The Chinese were Gooktlam for their pig tails.

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit visited Acadia to determine a location for the first permanent French Huguenot settlement in America.  They founded a Huguenot base at Tadoussac, Quebec.  

The Roman Catholic Church, at this time, would not allow Huguenots to immigrate to New France.  As a result, no official French colony was established in Canada until after 1600- or so they claimed.  The reality is that no Protestants or Jews were allowed into New France according to official proclamations.




(I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) sent the Esperance, a supply ship, to Tadoussac, Quebec and found five of the 12 colonists alive.  As a result, Chauvin and Pont would lose their position in New France.  Others suggest (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1602) and company built 20 buildings this season

The Malecite (Maliseet) People alias Souriquois, lived in New Brunswick west of the St. John River and some believe they are Metis being decedents of Indian and European fishermen, especially the Basque.  They are linked to the Algonquian linguistic family but some suggest 1/2 the original Malecite spoke 1/2 basque.  It is noteworthy that the Malecite and Etchemin People are not indigenous to Acadia and only arrived this century.  Malecite and Etchemin are believed to be the same Peoples.  These People live in small houses and dress like Europeans.  They are fair skinned as compared to the other Indians.

John Smith in search of the northwest passage, sailing from Jamestown explored the Chesapeake Bay area.

March:  George Waymouth sailed from England for Virginia to reconnoiter a site for settlement.  He then sailed north and made landfall off Nantucket Island, then off the Maine coast.  He anchored off Monhegan Island and sent expeditions up the St. George and Kennebec Rivers.  He kidnapped five Abenaki slaves and returned to England. 



France sent 16 ships to New France this season.

A supply ship was sent out to Sable Island, the first in two years and only found eleven remaining colonists.

Peter Easton, a privateer in Queen Elizabeth the 1st's navy, lost his commission and turned to piracy from 1602 to 1615.  By 1610 he commanded 1,400 men and 10 well-equipped warships.  His headquarters was in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland.  It is estimated his personal fortunate was close to $600 million Canadian.

(I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) traveled to Tadoussac, Quebec and brought two Natives to France.

George Weymouth ventured to the Hudson Strait looking for the North West Passage to India for the East India Company, returning to England on September 5.

Sheila Nagaira of Ireland is captured by the Dutch who in turn are captured by the English Captain Peter Easton who was on his way to Newfoundland.  During the voyage Sheila fell in love with Gilbert Pike and were married aboard ship.  The settled into Mosquito in Conception Bay.  

Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo, governor Florida sent Juan de Lara to investigate if the Spanish soldiers from New Mexico had reached Tama (Milledgeville, Georgia).  It is not recorded if the overland expedition from New Mexico reached Tama.

Bartholomew Gosnold (1572-1607) of England with a crew of 31 sailed to southern Maine to Narragansett Bay.  He sailed to Cape Cod into Nantucket Sound.  He then built a fort on Elizabeth's Isle, now called Cuttyhunk and explored the north shore of Buzzard's Bay. 

February:   (I)-Aymer de Chaste d-1603 is named Lieutenant General of New France by King Henri IV of France.  He is commissioned to establish a colony and is given a trading monopoly.  He formed the De Chaste Trading Company.

April:   (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) sailed with two ships to trade for furs at Tadoussac, Quebec.



France sent 80 vessels or boats to Newfoundland and New France this season.

(I)-Aymar de Chaste (d-1603) had obtained the trading monopoly for New France, Newfoundland and Larcadie (Acadie) in 1602 and had (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) appointed as his representative in New France.

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) received royal patents for the colonization, commercial exploitation and government of Acadia for the next ten years.  He would learn the Royal patents were worthless as the Basques ignored them and made off with most of the fur trade. 

(I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727) is with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) this year.

 Acadie (Acadia) appears to be a Micmac or Mi'-Kmaq name meaning place of plenty.  Others suggest (I)-Pont-Grave of St. Milo (1554-1629) had obtained the same authority of Marquis de la Roche and sent 3 barks that arrived safely in Acadian waters.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  published his 80 page "Des Sauvages" and freely admits that many people have written about Canada before he set down his account in 1603.  What he doesn't admit is his habit of recording the observations of others as his own without giving credit.  This is fairly obvious in his brief narrative of 1599.  It is noteworthy that the French and Basques had been fishing the St. Lawrence for the past 100 years and provided him with valuable navigation information.  He met another Basque fisherman at Tor Bay, Nova Scotia who said he had been coming there since 1563.   This fisherman in the ship Savalette that his father also fished this area as did his grandfather.  Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) confirmed in 1535 that fishermen had indeed preceded him to America.  It is noteworthy that Champlain  chose the word Savage rather than Indian to describe the peoples of the New World.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) records the story of the Mi'-Kmaq (Micmac) concerning Gougou a 200 foot colossal woman who wades through the waters off Canada's east coast catching unwary mariners.  

March 15:   (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) of the De Chaste Trading Company sailed for New France from Honfleur, France and allowed (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to join his expedition.   

May 13:   (I)-Aymar de Chaste (died May 13) and France granted (I)-Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts (1558-1628), the New France trade monopoly.

May 8:  (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) landed on the east coast of Nova Scotia (Acadia) and called the spot La Heve.  Down the coast they encountered Jean Rossignol, a Spanard who was trading with the Indians.  Champlain considered this illegal activity and seized the furs and his ship.  In recognition of this event he named the area Port Rossignol.

May 24:   The two ships of the De Chaste Trading Company are anchored at the mouth of the Saguenay River near Tadoussac, Quebec.  The Montagnis Tabagies festivals were being conducted at this time in this ancient trading location.  They had ten kettles, likely received in trade, filled with moose, bear, seal and beaver, positioned twenty feet apart.  Anadabijou and 80-100 savages attended the Tabagies.  They had no French manners and ate with their fingers, which they wiped on themselves or on their hunting dogs.

May 27:   (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is told that the Etchemins, the Algonkins and the Montagnais- numbering 1,000 men- had warred against the Iroquois at the mouth of the Iroquois River and had killed and scalped a hundred of them.  Anadaabijou said that they had to rely wholly on surprise, for they are outnumbered by the Iroquois and wouldn't dare to attack them openly.  This sounds more like exaggeration in an attempt to impress the French in order to demonstrate what they had to offer the French for an alliance.  Champlain also believed them to be great liars (exaggeration of the facts). 

June 9:   Tadoussac, at this time, numbered 1,000 men, women and children.  Dancing (the girls at times naked) , races, feasting and gift giving is evident.  Champlain discovered that they believed in the Great Spirit who created all things including the world and the people.  They believe in the immortality of the soul.

June 11:   (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by (I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored up the Saguenay River for 35 miles.  They then journeyed up the St Lawrence River looking for Stadacona, but there was no sign of the village.  The Savages told them of the saltwater Bay of the North, and Champlain believed it to be part of the Atlantic Ocean.

June 24:  On the Sainte Croix River, on an Island (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) established a colony of 79 people but 35 died of scurvy the first winter.  This is hard to believe as European sailor have know how to treat scurvy for over a thousand years, especially using the herb alexanders.  It was some times called Scotch lovage or sea lovage.  

June 29:   (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by (I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored Lac Saint Pierre and entered the mouth of the Richelieu River.  They journeyed up the river to the Saint Pours Rapids and learned from the Savages of other lakes upstream which were later named Lake Champlain and Lake George.  They were also told of the Great River that leads down to the coast of Florida, but more likely the Hudson River that empties at New York.

July 11:   By canoe, the party went to Sault Saint Louis or Lachine Rapids and the site of Hochelaga (Montreal), which no longer existed, and met with several bands of Algonquian.  Everyone tells them of the great rivers and gigantic lakes. The savages described Niagara Falls, Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, as well as the Detroit River to the St. Lawrence.   He did not report encounters with the Iroquois as the Algonquian had displaced them to the south.  Champlain believed the Three Rivers area would make an ideal place for settlement.  He also believed in the monster Gougou, as he did of the dragons of Mexico.  He also believed you could hardly hope to find a more beautiful country than Canada.  

September 20:  The De Caste Trading Company expedition returned to France and learned of the death of Chastes on May 13, 1603.

November 8:   (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), Governor of Acadia and owner of the fur trade monopoly of New France, for the next 10 years engaged (I)-Francois Graves and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), from 1604 to 1607, to search for the best location to establish a fur trading post before settling on Stadacona (Quebec city) which is a historic Native trading location.   The venture is funded by Calvinists, as there are none among the Roman Orthodox with whom they could bargain.  It is noteworthy that Cartier did not share the knowledge of avoiding scurvy, and it plagued the de Monts Acadian venture.

November 15:    (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  published his account of Des Sauvages.  These friendly, hospitable people told (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  of the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi River system leading to the Gulf of Mexico.  It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) used an unnamed interpreter to converse with the inhabitants.




The war with Spain made it difficult, if not impossible, to establish colonies in America until this time.  

The Norman, Basque and Breton fisherman are regularly fishing for cod on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and along the coast of Nova Scotia. 

Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt, arrived Acadia with an expedition, staying until 1607.

The Saint Lawrence River (Quebec) was rejected as a possible French colony site because of the great number of free traders using that area and because they refused to yield to a French monopoly.  (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) named Prince Edward Island, Ile de Saint Jean.

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) sailed to La Heve (Halifax) Acadia and discovered a vessel whose Captain is named Rossignol and he captured the ship as a violation of his territory.  The secular Priest Nicolas Aubrey went ashore at St Mary's Bay and became lost but turned up 17 days later.  Sieur De Poutrincourt of Picardies obtained a grant for Port Royal from (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) that was later confirmed by the French King.

February:   The De Monts Trading Company is formed to fur trade and colonize New France.  Members include de Monts, du Pont and de Champlain. 

March:  (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) commanded 4 ships with both Catholic and Huguenots but only Catholics are allowed to evangelize the savages.  Two ships were to go to Tadousac and two ships to Acadia. 

March 7:   The De Monts Trading Company sent du Pont from Havre de Grace, France to New France.  Swiss guards were members of the first French expedition to launch a colony in Acadia.

March 10:   The De Monts Trading Company sent (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) to Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.  

May 13:   (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), of the de Monts Trading Company,  named Port au Mouton (Port Mouton, Nova Scotia) because a sheep had jumped overboard.  Meanwhile (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  and Jean Ralluau explored the coast as far as the Bay of Fundy.  De Monts and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) explored in a longboat, looking for the site for a settlement and for mineral deposits discovered in 1603 by de Prevert.

June: The French wintered on an island in the St. Croix River, Nova Scotia, marking the beginning of Acadia.  St. Croix Island actually is in the the St. Croix River that separates New Brunswick and Maine but is eventually claimed by Maine.  The Colony was attacked by a certain malady called the mal de la terre (scurvy).  The majority of them could not rise nor move and could not even be raised up on their feet without falling down in a swoon, so that out of 79 who composed our party, 35 died and more than 20 were on the point of death.  They opened several of them to determine the cause of their illness (performed  autopsies).  De Monts, a military man, said the decisive factor of location was that it could be made secure from attacks by the Indians.  

June 24:   (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  skirted the New Brunswick shore and entered the Saint John River then continued westward along the coast until they reached a desolate, sandy Island which de Monts named Ile Sainte Croix.  They built a palisade, houses for 80 colonists, and planted wheat (rye).  The Island had no fresh water or firewood, which indicates their level of incompetence.  They would pay a terrible price for this mistake.  (I)-Guillaume des Champs and (I)-Maitre Etienne also practiced medicine.   (I)-Pierre Du Gua Monsieur de Monts was a Huguenot and expected the promised religious freedom but received orders to convert the Natives to the Catholic faith.    The first resident, Christian missionary is Father (I)-Nicholas Aubry, a secular priest who, with thirty-six other immigrants, died of scurvy during the first winter.

October 2:  (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returned to St. Croix Island, the dwellings were completed and 4 days later the snow began to fall.  The storehouse had no cellar and air that entered through the cracks was more severe than that out side.  Ice flow cut them off from a wood supply.  Champlain wrote the colony was hit by landsickness (scurvy)- - of 79 of us, 35 died, and more than 20 were very near it - - we could find no remedy with which to cure this malady.  A group of eleven remained well - - a jolly company of hunters who preferred rabbit hunting to the air of the fireside; skating on ponds, to turning over lazy in bed; making snow balls to bring down the game, to sitting around the fire talking about Paris and its good cooks. 




The Danes hire the Englishman James Hall to make a trip to Terra Nova.  He seized three Eskimos, along with their kayaks, as slaves.

Grand-Pre, Acadia was first settled in 1605 through 150 years to the deportation in 1755 when it was burned to the ground by the British.

Francisco Fernandez de Ecija  is dispatched by the governor of Florida to investigate an Anglo-French exploring and trading expedition.  In Saint Helna Sound on the Carolina coast, he captured the expeditions two ships.

June 18:   (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, sailed south as far as Massachusetts Bay and Nauset Harbour, Massachusetts, searching for a better site for their colony.  He visited Cape Cod, hoping to establish a French colony here, but abandoned the idea because too many people already lived there.  When they returned, the St. Croix river settlement was already dismantled and moved to Port Royal, Acadia.  A new supply ship had arrived from France with 40 new colonists.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) discovered that the savages were growing 'sunchokes' in their vegetable gardens and thought they tasted like Artichokes.  The People however called them 'sun roots'.

Fort Port Royal (1605-1613)

Port Royal
The French trading post of St. Croix River moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Acadia. 



September:    (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) returns to France to attend to finances, leaving (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) in charge of the Monts Trading Company.  A storm blew de Monts landward where five men disembarked at Cape Cod and 4 are killed by the savages.  (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)  was commissioned to conduct exploration.  The forty some men who remained behind planted gardens and built a pond with trout.  A Roman Catholic and a Protestant Huguenot minister are among those who remained.  These clerics even came to blows at times, but scurvy claimed them both at the same time.  They are buried in a common grave to see if they could rest in peace when dead.   The outlay exceeded the receipts and, thereby, doomed the venture.  The French had failed to either establish sufficient trading relationships with the Natives or discover harbors suitable for settlement.  They blamed the Natives for being uncivilized.  They contend the people of the interior are more civilized.  The Company grant is revoked, they say because of the jealousy and importunity of certain Basque and Briton merchants.

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