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NEW FRANCE 1660 - 1662
Quebec Culture

Women are desperately needed so the filles du Roi are created 


FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX


In New France, the people have no political rights. Public meetings are banned.
The people must be indoors by 9:00 P.M. Farmers are forbidden to move into town.
Farmers can't own more than two horses. Books are banned, except for devotional matter.


Twenty four marriages, one hundred thirteen births and forty seven deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Pierre Martin, b-1631 farmer,  married 1660, Acadia, Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; their four Metis children: Pierre 10, Rene 8, Andre 5, Jacques 2-1/2; cattle 11, sheep 6, 8 arpents of land. (1671 census)

(II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660, Acadia, son (I)-Philippe Muis D'Entremont, (1601-1701) and (I)-Madeline Helie Du Tillet, b-1626:  married 1678 Acadia Marie Mi'Kmag 

Some contend the Kings daughters and French marriageable daughters began arriving this year,  others suggest they started in 1663.  There was a growing concern in France that the Metis descendants are outnumbering the French descendents and if something isn't done, French would become a minority in New France.

Port Royal, Acadia, (II)-Alexander Le Borgne (1640-1693) son (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675) married (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654 daughter (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) and his 3rd wife Jeanne Motin.

Pierre Martin married 1660, Acadia, Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, sauvagesse 

The Jesuits claim the engage system was originated some time before this date to increase the population of Quebec.  Their terms of employment were 3 years.  Many of these engages became Coureurs de Bois.  Engages or indentured slaves however were employed as early as 1634.

About this time, the profession of cobblers or harness makers started in Quebec.  They started producing French style shoes, but the population wanted Indian footwear.  They adopted the Native moccasins and high soft boots that were water resistance.  The trades were not governed by statutes and regulations of French guilds, despite repeated attempts by Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694)  to establish such regulations.  

A prerequisite for remaining in the New France colony was the acceptance of the Roman Catholic Faith.  (I)-Louis Garnaud had the choice to return to France or stay and accept the one and only true faith.  The confirmation of (I)-Louis Garnaud is February 24, 1660 in Fort Quebec.  He declared his age as being 26 and said he was from Saumur, which is south east of Angers in France.  Family tradition suggests he left France due to the religious persecution, and this may account for the name change and other discrepancies in the records of this time.  

When (I)-Louis Garnaud arrived, the French colonies on the St. Lawrence are in desperate straits due to the Iroquois' constant attacks, and the total population is only some two thousand people.  Liquor traffic, despite Lavel's excommunication decree, is in full swing as an important trade item. (I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1632-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart are the best known traders at this time in Lake Michigan, Lake Superior and the Sault Ste Marie region.  They established trading posts at Chequamegon, along the south shore of Lake Michigan.  This area contained groups of displaced Wendat and Ottawa Natives, driven west by the Iroquois.  

Groseillier/Radisson, this year, attempted in vain to have a third expedition approved into the north west, but was refused by the Governor.  This French stupidity would have profound implications on the French culture in Canada and the United States.  It is noteworthy that the European culture, at this time, only allowed aristocratic gentlemen to conduct exploration and only if accompanied by a priest.  This included the English, French and Spanish.

The French are aware that 300 leagues southward from the end of Lake Superior is the Bay of St. Esprit, in the Gulf of Mexico on the coast of Florida.  About 200 leagues is a river that empties into the Vermillion Sea (California).  It is also known that the Savages who live 60 leagues west of Lake Superior are trading with Europeans who are in the area.

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (1641/44-1717), son Nicolas Perrot, raised by the Jesuits, arrived in New France indentured to the Jesuits.

Meanwhile, Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) inspired decree established working guidelines for the Colony.  The intent was to ensure the bondage of young people to land and, therefore, religion.  The order is for parents of New France to see their sons married by twenty and daughters by sixteen or appear in court.  The Father must appear in court every six-months until the unwed child has found a mate.  Many girls promised in marriage are as young as ten or twelve.  This fanatical Church Indenture Decree is to ensure the religious and economic monopoly of the Church.  The following Indenture laws made this perfectly clear:

  • Merchants are not permitted to hold meetings for discussion of business matters. (this is to discourage free trade thinking),
  • No one could trade in foreign goods. (non French goods)
  • It is illegal for townspeople to rent houses or rooms to tenants from the country; the fine being 100 livre. (to retain a peasant population)
  • Licenses had to be obtained to hire domestic servants. (to keep track of single people)
  • Farmers are forbidden to move into town on pain of being fined fifty livre and having all their goods and chattels confiscated. (to secure a peasant population)
  • Country folk must not own more than two horses or mares and one foal. (this effectively restricting prosperity),
  • People are not permitted to sit on benches in front of their houses after nine in the evening. (they are expected to pro-create)
  • Prohibitions on the possession of all books, save the lives of the Saints and similar volumes of devotional nature. (to prevent freethinking).

This religiously sponsored decree and Royal supported policy, drove men into the woods (runners of the woods).  The exodus was so great that, at one time, the loss to the town is a quarter of the effective population.  The Indenture Decree did much to encourage the growing Voyagers and 'Bois Brule' (Metis) population.  Many of the regulations are directly traceable to the clerical influence and their egotistical insistence of importing their ideal European beliefs and values into the New Country.  The decrees forced the Voyager French to align more closely with the Native beliefs and values and away from Roman and French values.

The English under the reign of King Charles II (1660-1785) shipped convicts to the colonies, New England, Maryland, Virginia and the West Indies.  These included juvenile delinquents who stole food, felons, habitual criminals and highwaymen who could save their lives if they could read.  Their indenture was for seven years, then they earned their freedom.  Many were also engaged the in kidnapping young boys and girls, who are spirited on board colony bound ships that are sold in bondage to recover the costs of this slave trade.  Those who attempted to escape are whipped, adding months or years to their indenture.  Because of King Charles II (1660-1785) persecution of the Quakers in England, severe laws are passed in every colony except Rhode Island.  Quakers are whipped and imprisoned, in New York they are tortured, and in Boston, hanged.

Richelieu Island, a fort siege by 200 Iroquois that expanded to over 500, in the next 10 days of the siege.  The fort fell and all the French are killed.

Kabec, 4 ships arrived, the Saint Jean at 100 tonnage from Normandie with captain Elie Raymond, a ship lands at Perce with captain Lefbvre, a ship de La Rochelle captain Pointel and a second ship de la Rochelle.

January:   Seven persons presented themselves to the Jesuits to settle in Beauport New France.

January 7:  Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (II)-Laurent Archambault, b-1642, (Metis?) b-1642, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married January 7, 1660, Ville-Marie (Montreal) Catherine Marchand.

January 11:   Coste de Beaupre aka L'Ange Gardien, Quebec (Audourt) (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698)  and Jean Jacquereau had entrusted to Jacques Vesinat (Vezina), by contract the ground #9 qu ils acquired by Jean Baptiste Halle on July 7, 1658 (Audouart) others suggest November 30, 1657.  Ground #9 is 3 arpents by 126 arpents.  (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) then returned to Quebec to work.

January 31:  Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620; married 1680, (II)-Francoise Leblanc, b-1662 daughter (I)-Leonard Leblanc, Francoise epouse February 18, 1709, Montreal, Pierre Delorme. 

February:  Permission to eat eggs for this year was published everywhere.  Cheese was not spoken of, permission to eat it was taken for granted, as in the case of butter.  The French do not commonly like eggs unless they are soft, but the Savages declare that soft eggs are still quite raw, therefore they have them boiled hard to eat.

February 24:  cathedral of the upper town of Quebec (I)- Louis Garnaud aka Guerineau  (1634-1698) is confirmed at age 26 

April:   Long Sault rapids: (I)-Adam Dollard (1635-1660) with 17 Frenchmen, 44 Huron and a handful of Algonquin, were intent on ambushing an Iroquois trade canoe.  They, however, encountered a 300 man Iroquois army.  The Indians immediately fled, but the French fought for 7 days and tried to bomb the Iroquois.  The keg of gunpowder  snagged and they blew themselves up.  Nine survived but were executed by the Iroquois.

April:  Tadoussac, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1690) son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and (I)-Jeanne Du Roussy b-1614 married Dorthee sauvagesse (1613-1661) Dorthee died L'Hopital de Quebec.

May 5:   Father Francois de Lavel (1623-1708), vicar apostolic, excommunicated all residents of New France who sold liquor to the Indians.  In retaliation, the traders at Tadoussac tried to prevent Druillettes and Jacque Fremin from visiting the trading post.

May 21:  Jean Dechamire Lecompte is killed by the Iroquois at Long Sault, Quebec.

May 25:   Jean Peronne Dumesnil (d-1667) is sent to Quebec to audit all fur-trading transactions of the Company of New France since 1645.  The Company is in severe financial difficulty.

June:  Quebec, arrival Jean Pere, Adrien Jollet brother of Louis Jollet.  

August 22:   The Groseillier/Radisson Expedition returned with 300 men and many furs.  The Jesuits reported that 100 canoes departed Lake Superior, but that 40 canoes turned back.  The remaining 60 canoes contained 200,000 livres of pelts.  There was a great celebration by the people upon their return.  However, because they were Coureurs des Bois and not an official French expedition, the Governor imprisoned them.   The popular heroes were heavily fined and their trade goods were seized.  

September 19:  Beaupre aka L'Ange Gardien, Quebec (Audourt):  (I)-Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) took a lease on the ground of Jacques Vauclin dit Rose, (Jacques Vauclin Larose) ground #10 next to his and Jacques Jacquereau holding of #9.

November 28:   Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) held a meeting of the church wardens and stated that Governor Pierre de Voyer Vicomte d'Argenson (1658-1661) was no longer an honorable Churchwarden; and this without having told him of it.  This is likely motivated by the Governor supporting the condemnation of Father Vaillant last year.  The Governor of New France informed the wardens and Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) that he had not the power to remove him.  Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) whipped two children, Charles Couillard and Ignace de Repentigny,  for saluting the Governor before saluting Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708).




The mission Chateau Richer de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Thirty one marriages, one hundred fourteen births and fifty deaths are recorded in New France.

Pierre Martin, Metis, b-1661, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644;  (source 1671 census)

Trois Rivers, Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, died January 7, 1750, Pte du Lac, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); married August 3, 1682, Sorel, (I)-Francois Delpee dit Saint Cerny (Singerny (Sincerni) also St. Cerny (Cerni) and also known as Montour, b-1640, died December 15, 1725, aux Trois Rivers.

Port Royal, Acadia, (III)-Jacques Le Borgne b-1661 son (II)-Alexander La Borgne (1640-1693) and (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654; married Anne Melancon.

Louis XIV (1661-1715), age 22, assumed the Royal seat in France with the regent Queen Mother Anne of Austria.  (I)-Pierre Du Bois, Baron d'Avaugour (Davaugour) (died 1664), Governor of New France August 31, 1661 to July 23, 1663, is the last Governor to serve Compagnie des Centassocies.  He removed restrictions on the brandy trade with the Natives so Bishop Lavel (1623-1708) had him recalled to France.  It is noteworthy that Bishop Lavel (1623-1708), a Jesuit, was a political appointment to undermine the Governor's rule using overlapping roles and responsibilities with the Governor.

Groseillier/Radisson, this year, attempted in vain to have a third expedition approved and supported by France.  They ventured to Boston for an expedition to the Cree's North Bay via an ocean route, but were rejected.  After being rejected on all fronts, they decided to turncoat and approach England.  This would take a few years to achieve.

Daniel Voil, an Englishman, is executed in New France for crimes which included smuggling, witchcraft and blasphemy.  New France servants posses not one political right, they are forbidden to hold public meetings without official permission or to solicit signatures to a petition.

Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685)

During the past two years, fifty eight settlers are killed and fifty-nine captured by the Iroquois.  The Church contends that alcohol is the cause and demands the shooting of two French men and the whipping of one for selling brandy to the Natives.  (I)-Charles Garnier (born 1636), and who later settled in L'Ange Gardien, is a witness to a transaction between (I)-Louis Garnaud and his future neighbor, (I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628).  The transaction is probably the acquisition of property at L'Ange Gardien that would be necessary to attract a future wife.

Photo of the Garneau homestead.
The view is to the south on the St. Lawrence River.



(I)-Louis Garnaud joined twenty-one farmers in the colony and tried to organize a parish at L'Ange Gardien.  (I)-Louis Garnaud's farm is very close to the Montmorency River which falls 250 feet from a former arm of the St. Lawrence River. 
The following is a listing of his immediate neighbors:

    (I)-Charles Garnier (b-1636) married (II)-Marie Louise Vesina and second marriage Gertrude Couillart,

    Raymond Paget alias Quercy and Charles Couillart Des Islets,

    Jacques Marette alias Lespine (b-1631) married 1660 Marie Paget (b-1648),

    (I)-Rene Brisson (b-1635) married 1665 Anne Vesina (b-1651),

    Pierre Maheust Des Hazards,

    (I)-Jean Trudel (b-1629) married 1655 (I)-Marguerite Thomas (b-1634),

    (I)-Laurent Gignard (b-1636) married Marie Elisabeth Sorin (b-1641),

    (I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628) married 1663 Catherine Guiot (b-1646),

    (I)-Jean Clement alias Lapointe (b-1626) married 1659 Madeline Surget (b-1638),

    Francis Herbert alias Le Comte De Roussy,

    Pierre Gendreau alias La Poussiere,

    (I)-Jacques Goulet (b-1615) married Marguerite Maillier (b-1631),

    (I)-Robert De La Laberge (b-1638) married 1663 Francoise Gausse (b-1634),

    (I)-Pierre Tremblay (b-1626 married 1657 Ozanne Achon (b-1633).

The following settlers are no longer at L'Ange Gardien by 1680 or are recorded by another name but were part of the original settlers:

    Antoine Andrieux,

    (I)-Michael Henault (b-1636) married 1662 Genevieve Macre (b-1636),

    Antoine Gaboury,

    (I)-Antoine Lefort (b-1646) married 1666 Marie Doyon (b-1652),

    Louis Lesage,

    Louis Socier married 1671 Marguerite Gaillard Duplessis,

    Jacques Nourry.

The savages destroy Fort Tadoussac.

Quebec, 4 ships arrived, the Marie at 400 tonnage with captain J. Pingault, the Taureau at 150 tonnage with captain Tadourneau, the Marguerite at 300 tonnage from La Rochelle with captain Guillaume Heuron and the Saint Pierre with captain Pierre Philie.

March 25:  (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) yealded his lease #10 in Beaupre aka Gardien Angle to Pierre Nony

April 13:  Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Gervaise, Metis, died December 18, 1672 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son,  (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married January 17, 1678, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Dupuis.

July 20:   Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth Pierre la Moyne d'Iberville died July 9, 1706 son Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685) a very wealthy and influential merchant and Catherine Thierry Primot.  Pierre is classified as a greedy man with a lust for conquest for personal financial gain, but is dedicated to France.  During his lifetime he used cruelty and generosity as he saw fit.

September 26:  Quebec, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and Jeanne Roussy, sauvagesse (1622-1689)(Doc Lussier suggests she is Micmac from Porty Royal); 1st married Dorthee Lasauvagesse died April 13, 1661; 2nd marriage September 26, 1661 (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau.

October 7:  Quebec, Daniel Vvil was shot rather than being hung, as was La Violette.

October 10:  Quebec, one Frenchman was flogged for having traded brandy to the Savages.

October 18:  Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis, died July 12, 1687, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married November 24, 1676 Quebec (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1751.  

December 5:   L'Ange Gardien, Quebec (Auber):  (I)-Louis Garnault aka Garnauld and Guerineau (1634-1698)  yielded to Jean Jacquereau, his associate, then established on the ground #16, his share of work qu ils had carried out jointly on the grounds quils had together so much with the Cote de Beaupre qu a l ile dOrleans, for the sum of 500 pounds.  They had ground in common on Island Orleans and with the Coste de Beaupre.




Thirty nine marriages, one hundred forty four births and thirty four deaths are recorded in New France.

New France now has 3,300 permanent residents.

(II)-Marie Angelique Couc, aka Caou, Metis, b-1662, died January 7, 1750 Pointe du Lac, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Miteameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine;  married January 7, 1682, Sorel Francois Delpe aka St. Cerny/St. Sorny/ St. Serny 

A Ville-Marie (Montreal) tribunal convicted Rene Besnard of casting a spell of impotence over his former-lover's husband Pierre Gadois.  Besnards was imprisoned.  In 1665 Bishop Laval annuled the still-barren marriage of Pierre Gadois and Marie Pontonnier on the grounds of "permanent impotence caused by witchcraft".  Pierre's 2nd wife bore him 12 children.

Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) departed for France to request King Louis XIV to terminate the Company of New France because, he contends,  they are not adequately supporting the Roman Catholic Church.  A coil of fiery serpent is seen in the sky.  Later, a great ball of fire passed over the colony to the northwest.  The clergy used this as a sign to entrench their religious views.

Thomas Temple (1615-1674) became Governor of Acadia ( Nova Scotia), but is forced to restore the colony to France in 1670.

The French established a small fishing settlement at Placentia, Newfoundland.

Quebec, commerce is opened to all merchants and 11 ships arrived this year, the Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvrelle at 200 tonnage with captain Jacques Jamain, the Aigle Blanc at 80 tonnage with captain Elie Raymond, the Petit Saint Jean, the Armes de Zelande at 250 tonnage with captain Janvier de Combes, the Saint Jean Baptiste at 150 tonnage with captain Guillaume Heurtin, the Flute Royale at 300 tonnage a Royale vessel with captain Guyon, the Aigle d'Or at 300 tonnage a Royal vessel with captain Nicolas Garnot dit Jambe de Bois (aka Peg Leg), the Fortune Doree at 140 tonnage with captain Francois Janot and two unnamed Royal vessels.

January:  (I)- Louis Garnault aka Guerineau and Garnaud (1634-1698) is working for the account of Jacques LeRoy, an inhabitant who lived on the third ground east of Montmorency River, Quebec.  This #3 ground was eventually turned over to France for unrecorded reasons.

February 23:   The Ordinary or Prelate can forbid, under penalty of excommunication ipso facto, the Europeans to sell alcohol, and treat as excommunicated those who will prove disobedient and intractable.

May 16:  Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Metis, died May 12, 1737,  son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620; married August 18, 1683, Beauport, Marie Anne Giroux; 2nd marriage February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, Genevieve Sedilot.  

July 25:  (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau  (1634-1698) went to see Laurent Denis and borrowed 25 pounds and 15 grounds from him.  From the profits he purchased 2 arpents facing LeRoy grounds to the western/south.  This ground had 5 arpents of face and Jean Grignon bought the 3 arpents remaining. 

August 25:  Thirty five Iroquois attacked 14 Frenchmen on a small Island near Ville-Marie (Montreal).  Monsieur Brignac and two other Frenchmen stood their ground but the other 11 fled.  Brignac killed the Captain of the Iroquois on the first assault, they retreated and fired on the deserting Frenchmen killing or wounding some of them.  The next assault saw Monsieur Vignal being killed and Brignac being wounded.   As prisons of war Brignac was killed and Rene Fresne was adopted into the tribe.

Autumn:  We saw fiery serpents, over Quebec, we beheld a great ball of fire, which illuminated the night almost with the splendor of day.  This same meteor appeared over Ville-Marie (Montreal). 

September 19:  Quebec, marriage (I)-Laurent Du Bocq (Dubeau), b-1636, married Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, sauvagesse, died November 1, 1689, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter Joachim, de la Conception.

September 23:  Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671)?? to Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, Anota, Annanonis, Ananontha, b-1649, Epouse 1672 (I)- Jacques Couturier b-1646.

September 26:  Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671), married Catherine Kateri Annennontak (Annannontok), Huronne, sauvagesse, born October 1648 Georgian Bay, near Lake Huron, daughter Nicolas Arendanke and Jeanne Otrihoandat;. epouse July 22, 1702 Quebec, Fancois du Carreau.

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