NEW FRANCE 1660 - 1662
Women are desperately needed so the filles du Roi are
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In New France, the people have no political rights. Public meetings are
The people must be indoors by 9:00 P.M. Farmers are forbidden to move into
Farmers can't own more than two horses. Books are banned, except for devotional
Twenty four marriages, one hundred thirteen births and forty seven deaths
are recorded in Kebec, New France.
Pierre Martin, b-1631 farmer, married 1660, Acadia, Anne
Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; their four Metis children: Pierre 10, Rene
8, Andre 5, Jacques 2-1/2; cattle 11, sheep 6, 8 arpents of land. (1671 census)
(II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660, Acadia, son (I)-Philippe Muis D'Entremont,
(1601-1701) and (I)-Madeline Helie Du Tillet, b-1626: married 1678 Acadia
Some contend the Kings daughters and French marriageable daughters began
arriving this year, others suggest they started in 1663. There was
a growing concern in France that the Metis descendants are outnumbering the
French descendents and if something isn't done, French would become a minority
in New France.
Port Royal, Acadia, (II)-Alexander Le Borgne (1640-1693) son (I)-Emmanuel
Le Borgue (1610-1675) married (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654 daughter (II)-Charles
La Tour (1595-1665) and his 3rd wife Jeanne Motin.
Pierre Martin married 1660, Acadia, Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous,
The Jesuits claim the engage system was originated some time before this
date to increase the population of Quebec. Their terms of employment were
3 years. Many of these engages became Coureurs de Bois. Engages or
indentured slaves however were employed as early as 1634.
About this time, the profession of cobblers or harness makers started in
Quebec. They started producing French style shoes, but the population
wanted Indian footwear. They adopted the Native moccasins and high
soft boots that were water resistance. The trades were not governed by
statutes and regulations of French guilds, despite repeated attempts by
Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) to establish such
A prerequisite for remaining in the New France colony was the acceptance of
the Roman Catholic Faith. (I)-Louis Garnaud had the choice to return to
France or stay and accept the one and only true faith. The confirmation
of (I)-Louis Garnaud is February 24, 1660 in Fort Quebec. He declared his
age as being 26 and said he was from Saumur, which is south east of Angers in
France. Family tradition suggests he left France due to the religious
persecution, and this may account for the name change and other discrepancies
in the records of this time.
When (I)-Louis Garnaud arrived, the French colonies on the St. Lawrence are
in desperate straits due to the Iroquois' constant attacks, and the total
population is only some two thousand people. Liquor traffic, despite
Lavel's excommunication decree, is in full swing as an important trade item.
(I)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1632-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart are the best
known traders at this time in Lake Michigan, Lake Superior and the Sault Ste
Marie region. They established trading posts at Chequamegon, along the
south shore of Lake Michigan. This area contained groups of displaced
Wendat and Ottawa Natives, driven west by the Iroquois.
Groseillier/Radisson, this year, attempted in vain to have a third
expedition approved into the north west, but was refused by the Governor.
This French stupidity would have profound implications on the French culture in
Canada and the United States. It is noteworthy that the European culture,
at this time, only allowed aristocratic gentlemen to conduct exploration and
only if accompanied by a priest. This included the English, French and
The French are aware that 300 leagues southward from the end of Lake
Superior is the Bay of St. Esprit, in the Gulf of Mexico on the coast of
Florida. About 200 leagues is a river that empties into the Vermillion
Sea (California). It is also known that the Savages who live 60 leagues
west of Lake Superior are trading with Europeans who are in the area.
(I)-Nicolas Perrot (1641/44-1717), son Nicolas Perrot, raised by the
Jesuits, arrived in New France indentured to the Jesuits.
Meanwhile, Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708)
inspired decree established working guidelines for the Colony. The intent
was to ensure the bondage of young people to land and, therefore,
religion. The order is for parents of New France to see their sons
married by twenty and daughters by sixteen or appear in court. The Father
must appear in court every six-months until the unwed child has found a
mate. Many girls promised in marriage are as young as ten or
twelve. This fanatical Church Indenture Decree is to ensure the religious
and economic monopoly of the Church. The following Indenture laws made
this perfectly clear:
- Merchants are not permitted to hold meetings for discussion of business
matters. (this is to discourage free trade thinking),
- No one could trade in foreign goods. (non French goods)
- It is illegal for townspeople to rent houses or rooms to tenants from the
country; the fine being 100 livre. (to retain a peasant population)
- Licenses had to be obtained to hire domestic servants. (to keep track of
- Farmers are forbidden to move into town on pain of being fined fifty livre
and having all their goods and chattels confiscated. (to secure a peasant
- Country folk must not own more than two horses or mares and one foal. (this
effectively restricting prosperity),
- People are not permitted to sit on benches in front of their houses after
nine in the evening. (they are expected to pro-create)
- Prohibitions on the possession of all books, save the lives of the Saints
and similar volumes of devotional nature. (to prevent freethinking).
This religiously sponsored decree and Royal supported policy, drove men into
the woods (runners of the woods). The exodus was so great that, at one
time, the loss to the town is a quarter of the effective population. The
Indenture Decree did much to encourage the growing Voyagers and 'Bois Brule'
(Metis) population. Many of the regulations are directly traceable to the
clerical influence and their egotistical insistence of importing their ideal
European beliefs and values into the New Country. The decrees forced the
Voyager French to align more closely with the Native beliefs and values and
away from Roman and French values.
The English under the reign of King Charles II (1660-1785) shipped convicts
to the colonies, New England, Maryland, Virginia and the West Indies.
These included juvenile delinquents who stole food, felons, habitual criminals
and highwaymen who could save their lives if they could read. Their
indenture was for seven years, then they earned their freedom. Many were
also engaged the in kidnapping young boys and girls, who are spirited on board
colony bound ships that are sold in bondage to recover the costs of this slave
trade. Those who attempted to escape are whipped, adding months or years
to their indenture. Because of King Charles II (1660-1785) persecution of
the Quakers in England, severe laws are passed in every colony except Rhode
Island. Quakers are whipped and imprisoned, in New York they are
tortured, and in Boston, hanged.
Richelieu Island, a fort siege by 200 Iroquois that expanded to over 500, in
the next 10 days of the siege. The fort fell and all the French are
Kabec, 4 ships arrived, the Saint Jean at 100 tonnage from Normandie with
captain Elie Raymond, a ship lands at Perce with captain Lefbvre, a ship de La
Rochelle captain Pointel and a second ship de la Rochelle.
January: Seven persons presented themselves to the Jesuits to
settle in Beauport New France.
January 7: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (II)-Laurent
Archambault, b-1642, (Metis?) b-1642, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688),
and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married January 7, 1660,
Ville-Marie (Montreal) Catherine Marchand.
January 11: Coste de Beaupre aka L'Ange Gardien, Quebec
(Audourt) (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and Jean
Jacquereau had entrusted to Jacques Vesinat (Vezina), by contract the ground #9
qu ils acquired by Jean Baptiste Halle on July 7, 1658 (Audouart) others
suggest November 30, 1657. Ground #9 is 3 arpents by 126 arpents.
(I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) then returned to Quebec to work.
January 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, son (I)-Martin
Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or
Algonquin, b-1620; married 1680, (II)-Francoise Leblanc, b-1662 daughter
(I)-Leonard Leblanc, Francoise epouse February 18, 1709, Montreal, Pierre
February: Permission to eat eggs for this year was published
everywhere. Cheese was not spoken of, permission to eat it was taken for
granted, as in the case of butter. The French do not commonly like eggs
unless they are soft, but the Savages declare that soft eggs are still quite
raw, therefore they have them boiled hard to eat.
February 24: cathedral of the upper town of Quebec (I)- Louis Garnaud
aka Guerineau (1634-1698) is confirmed at age 26
April: Long Sault rapids: (I)-Adam Dollard (1635-1660) with 17
Frenchmen, 44 Huron and a handful of Algonquin, were intent on ambushing an
Iroquois trade canoe. They, however, encountered a 300 man Iroquois
army. The Indians immediately fled, but the French fought for 7 days and
tried to bomb the Iroquois. The keg of gunpowder snagged and they
blew themselves up. Nine survived but were executed by the Iroquois.
April: Tadoussac, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1690) son
(I)-Nicolas Pelletier and (I)-Jeanne Du Roussy b-1614 married Dorthee
sauvagesse (1613-1661) Dorthee died L'Hopital de Quebec.
May 5: Father Francois de Lavel (1623-1708), vicar apostolic,
excommunicated all residents of New France who sold liquor to the
Indians. In retaliation, the traders at Tadoussac tried to prevent
Druillettes and Jacque Fremin from visiting the trading post.
May 21: Jean Dechamire Lecompte is killed by the Iroquois at Long
May 25: Jean Peronne Dumesnil (d-1667) is sent to Quebec to
audit all fur-trading transactions of the Company of New France since
1645. The Company is in severe financial difficulty.
June: Quebec, arrival Jean Pere, Adrien Jollet brother of Louis
August 22: The Groseillier/Radisson Expedition returned with 300
men and many furs. The Jesuits reported that 100 canoes departed Lake
Superior, but that 40 canoes turned back. The remaining 60 canoes
contained 200,000 livres of pelts. There was a great celebration by the
people upon their return. However, because they were Coureurs des Bois
and not an official French expedition, the Governor imprisoned
them. The popular heroes were heavily fined and their trade goods
September 19: Beaupre aka L'Ange Gardien, Quebec (Audourt):
(I)-Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) took a lease on the
ground of Jacques Vauclin dit Rose, (Jacques Vauclin Larose) ground #10 next to
his and Jacques Jacquereau holding of #9.
November 28: Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency
(1623-1708) held a meeting of the church wardens and stated that Governor
Pierre de Voyer Vicomte d'Argenson (1658-1661) was no longer an honorable
Churchwarden; and this without having told him of it. This is likely
motivated by the Governor supporting the condemnation of Father Vaillant last
year. The Governor of New France informed the wardens and Father (I)-
Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) that he had not the power to
remove him. Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708)
whipped two children, Charles Couillard and Ignace de Repentigny, for
saluting the Governor before saluting Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval
The mission Chateau Richer de la Province de Quebec is established this
Thirty one marriages, one hundred fourteen births and fifty deaths are
recorded in New France.
Pierre Martin, Metis, b-1661, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne
Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; (source 1671 census)
Trois Rivers, Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis,
died January 7, 1750, Pte du Lac, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur
(1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine,
sauvagesse, (1631-1699); married August 3, 1682, Sorel, (I)-Francois Delpee dit
Saint Cerny (Singerny (Sincerni) also St. Cerny (Cerni) and also known as
Montour, b-1640, died December 15, 1725, aux Trois Rivers.
Port Royal, Acadia, (III)-Jacques Le Borgne b-1661 son (II)-Alexander La
Borgne (1640-1693) and (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654; married Anne Melancon.
Louis XIV (1661-1715), age 22, assumed the Royal seat in France with the
regent Queen Mother Anne of Austria. (I)-Pierre Du Bois, Baron d'Avaugour
(Davaugour) (died 1664), Governor of New France August 31, 1661 to July 23,
1663, is the last Governor to serve Compagnie des Centassocies. He
removed restrictions on the brandy trade with the Natives so Bishop Lavel
(1623-1708) had him recalled to France. It is noteworthy that Bishop
Lavel (1623-1708), a Jesuit, was a political appointment to undermine the
Governor's rule using overlapping roles and responsibilities with the Governor.
Groseillier/Radisson, this year, attempted in vain to have a third
expedition approved and supported by France. They ventured to Boston for
an expedition to the Cree's North Bay via an ocean route, but were
rejected. After being rejected on all fronts, they decided to turncoat
and approach England. This would take a few years to achieve.
Daniel Voil, an Englishman, is executed in New France for crimes which
included smuggling, witchcraft and blasphemy. New France servants posses
not one political right, they are forbidden to hold public meetings without
official permission or to solicit signatures to a petition.
Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685)
During the past two years, fifty eight settlers are killed and fifty-nine
captured by the Iroquois. The Church contends that alcohol is the cause
and demands the shooting of two French men and the whipping of one for selling
brandy to the Natives. (I)-Charles Garnier (born 1636), and who later
settled in L'Ange Gardien, is a witness to a transaction between (I)-Louis
Garnaud and his future neighbor, (I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628). The
transaction is probably the acquisition of property at L'Ange Gardien that
would be necessary to attract a future wife.
Photo of the Garneau homestead.
view is to the south on the St. Lawrence River.
(I)-Louis Garnaud joined twenty-one farmers in the colony and tried to
organize a parish at L'Ange Gardien. (I)-Louis Garnaud's farm is very
close to the Montmorency River which falls 250 feet from a former arm of the
St. Lawrence River.
The following is a listing of his immediate neighbors:
(I)-Charles Garnier (b-1636) married (II)-Marie Louise
Vesina and second marriage Gertrude Couillart,
Raymond Paget alias Quercy and Charles Couillart Des
Jacques Marette alias Lespine (b-1631) married 1660 Marie
(I)-Rene Brisson (b-1635) married 1665 Anne Vesina
Pierre Maheust Des Hazards,
(I)-Jean Trudel (b-1629) married 1655 (I)-Marguerite
(I)-Laurent Gignard (b-1636) married Marie Elisabeth
(I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628) married 1663 Catherine Guiot
(I)-Jean Clement alias Lapointe (b-1626) married 1659
Madeline Surget (b-1638),
Francis Herbert alias Le Comte De Roussy,
Pierre Gendreau alias La Poussiere,
(I)-Jacques Goulet (b-1615) married Marguerite Maillier
(I)-Robert De La Laberge (b-1638) married 1663 Francoise
(I)-Pierre Tremblay (b-1626 married 1657 Ozanne Achon
The following settlers are no longer at L'Ange Gardien by 1680 or are
recorded by another name but were part of the original settlers:
(I)-Michael Henault (b-1636) married 1662 Genevieve Macre
(I)-Antoine Lefort (b-1646) married 1666 Marie Doyon
Louis Socier married 1671 Marguerite Gaillard Duplessis,
The savages destroy Fort Tadoussac.
Quebec, 4 ships arrived, the Marie at 400 tonnage with captain J. Pingault,
the Taureau at 150 tonnage with captain Tadourneau, the Marguerite at 300
tonnage from La Rochelle with captain Guillaume Heuron and the Saint Pierre
with captain Pierre Philie.
March 25: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698)
yealded his lease #10 in Beaupre aka Gardien Angle to Pierre Nony
April 13: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Gervaise, Metis,
died December 18, 1672 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise
(1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married January 17,
1678, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Dupuis.
July 20: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth Pierre la Moyne
d'Iberville died July 9, 1706 son Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de
Chateauguay (1626-1685) a very wealthy and influential merchant and Catherine
Thierry Primot. Pierre is classified as a greedy man with a lust for
conquest for personal financial gain, but is dedicated to France. During
his lifetime he used cruelty and generosity as he saw fit.
September 26: Quebec, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier, Metis, son
(I)-Nicolas Pelletier and Jeanne Roussy, sauvagesse (1622-1689)(Doc Lussier
suggests she is Micmac from Porty Royal); 1st married Dorthee Lasauvagesse died
April 13, 1661; 2nd marriage September 26, 1661 (II)-Marguerite Madeleine
October 7: Quebec, Daniel Vvil was shot rather than being hung, as was
October 10: Quebec, one Frenchman was flogged for having traded brandy
to the Savages.
October 18: Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis, died July
12, 1687, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and
(II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married November 24, 1676 Quebec (I)-Isaac Hervieux
December 5: L'Ange Gardien, Quebec (Auber): (I)-Louis
Garnault aka Garnauld and Guerineau (1634-1698) yielded to Jean
Jacquereau, his associate, then established on the ground #16, his share of
work qu ils had carried out jointly on the grounds quils had together so much
with the Cote de Beaupre qu a l ile dOrleans, for the sum of 500 pounds.
They had ground in common on Island Orleans and with the Coste de Beaupre.
Thirty nine marriages, one hundred forty four births and thirty four deaths
are recorded in New France.
New France now has 3,300 permanent residents.
(II)-Marie Angelique Couc, aka Caou, Metis, b-1662, died January 7, 1750
Pointe du Lac, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie
Miteameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine; married January 7, 1682, Sorel
Francois Delpe aka St. Cerny/St. Sorny/ St. Serny
A Ville-Marie (Montreal) tribunal convicted Rene Besnard of casting a spell
of impotence over his former-lover's husband Pierre Gadois. Besnards was
imprisoned. In 1665 Bishop Laval annuled the still-barren marriage of
Pierre Gadois and Marie Pontonnier on the grounds of "permanent impotence
caused by witchcraft". Pierre's 2nd wife bore him 12 children.
Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) departed for
France to request King Louis XIV to terminate the Company of New France
because, he contends, they are not adequately supporting the Roman
Catholic Church. A coil of fiery serpent is seen in the sky. Later,
a great ball of fire passed over the colony to the northwest. The clergy
used this as a sign to entrench their religious views.
Thomas Temple (1615-1674) became Governor of Acadia ( Nova Scotia), but is
forced to restore the colony to France in 1670.
The French established a small fishing settlement at Placentia,
Quebec, commerce is opened to all merchants and 11 ships arrived this year,
the Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvrelle at 200 tonnage with captain Jacques Jamain,
the Aigle Blanc at 80 tonnage with captain Elie Raymond, the Petit Saint Jean,
the Armes de Zelande at 250 tonnage with captain Janvier de Combes, the Saint
Jean Baptiste at 150 tonnage with captain Guillaume Heurtin, the Flute Royale
at 300 tonnage a Royale vessel with captain Guyon, the Aigle d'Or at 300
tonnage a Royal vessel with captain Nicolas Garnot dit Jambe de Bois (aka Peg
Leg), the Fortune Doree at 140 tonnage with captain Francois Janot and two
unnamed Royal vessels.
January: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Guerineau and Garnaud (1634-1698) is
working for the account of Jacques LeRoy, an inhabitant who lived on the third
ground east of Montmorency River, Quebec. This #3 ground was eventually
turned over to France for unrecorded reasons.
February 23: The Ordinary or Prelate can forbid, under penalty
of excommunication ipso facto, the Europeans to sell alcohol, and treat as
excommunicated those who will prove disobedient and intractable.
May 16: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Metis, died May 12,
1737, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre
Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620; married August 18, 1683, Beauport,
Marie Anne Giroux; 2nd marriage February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, Genevieve
July 25: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau
(1634-1698) went to see Laurent Denis and borrowed 25 pounds and 15 grounds
from him. From the profits he purchased 2 arpents facing LeRoy grounds to
the western/south. This ground had 5 arpents of face and Jean Grignon
bought the 3 arpents remaining.
August 25: Thirty five Iroquois attacked 14 Frenchmen on a small
Island near Ville-Marie (Montreal). Monsieur Brignac and two other
Frenchmen stood their ground but the other 11 fled. Brignac killed the
Captain of the Iroquois on the first assault, they retreated and fired on the
deserting Frenchmen killing or wounding some of them. The next assault
saw Monsieur Vignal being killed and Brignac being wounded. As
prisons of war Brignac was killed and Rene Fresne was adopted into the tribe.
Autumn: We saw fiery serpents, over Quebec, we beheld a great ball of
fire, which illuminated the night almost with the splendor of day. This
same meteor appeared over Ville-Marie (Montreal).
September 19: Quebec, marriage (I)-Laurent Du Bocq (Dubeau), b-1636,
married Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, sauvagesse, died November 1, 1689,
Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter Joachim, de la Conception.
September 23: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671)?? to
Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, Anota, Annanonis, Ananontha, b-1649, Epouse
1672 (I)- Jacques Couturier b-1646.
September 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671), married
Catherine Kateri Annennontak (Annannontok), Huronne, sauvagesse, born October
1648 Georgian Bay, near Lake Huron, daughter Nicolas Arendanke and Jeanne
Otrihoandat;. epouse July 22, 1702 Quebec, Fancois du Carreau.
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