Canada in Mali: Aid, Gold, Cotton, Migration

 

A review of Canadian development assistance, trade, investment and immigration policy with the Republic of Mali

 

Version 20090905

 

Outline

1.       OVERVIEW... 5

1.1.        ONE-QUARTER OF MALIAN ECONOMY: FOREIGN AID, GOLD & COTTON.. 5

1.2.        CANADIAN CORPORATE INTERESTS ABROAD: PAX CANADENSIS?. 6

1.3.        CANADA GAINS AS MUCH AS IT GIVES TO MALI. 7

1.4.        COTTON EXPORTS LOST, BUT $1 BILLION IN GOLD REVENUE FOR MALI. 7

1.5.        LONG-TERM BENEFITS?. 8

1.6.        FAIRER IMMIGRATION QUOTAS FOR MALIANS WOULD INCREASE MONETARY FLOWS BY 33% OVER CANADIAN AID. 8

1.7.        NON-MONETARY MEASURES. 8

1.8.        MALI A STRONG CANADIAN ALLY. 8

1.9.        MALI & NEWSWORTHINESS. 9

1.10.           SLOWLY NARROWING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT GAPS BETWEEN MALI & CANADA. 9

1.11.           A CANADIAN'S LUCKY GOLD STRIKE at SADIOLA.. 9

1.12.           SILENCING & EVADING.. 10

2.       MALI & "DEVELOPMENT". 12

2.1.        MALIANS & CANADIANS: THREE STARK COMPARISONS. 12

2.1.1.         (a) 10% OF CANADIANS AMONG WORLD'S RICHEST 1%, AND 10% OF MALIANS AMONG WORLD'S POOREST 1%    12

2.1.2.         (b) WOMEN IN MALI 200 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO DIE DURING CHILDBIRTH THAN CANADIAN WOMEN. 12

2.1.3.         (c) CANADIAN BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT AID TO MALI, 1996-2007, nominal US dollars: US$383m. (at 25%-75% "tied aid").  PROFITS REPATRIATED BY CANADIAN MINING COMPANY IAMGOLD IN MALI, 1996-2007: US$260m.  CANADA PENSION PLAN EARNINGS ON IAMGOLD INVESTMENTS 2006, 2007: US$6.7m.  QUEBEC PENSION PLAN EARNINGS ON MINING IN MALI, 2007: $0.3 m.  CANADA-MALI TRADE BALANCE, average, 2004-2008: Cdn.$8.6m. MALIAN-CANADIAN REMITTANCES TO MALI, 2007:  approximately US$580k. 13

2.2.        MEASURES OF MALI'S HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.. 14

2.2.1.         MALIAN INCOMES ARE WHAT CANADIANS EARNED 170 YEARS AGO.  LIFE EXPECTANCY GAP: 100 YEARS.  INFANT MORTALITY GAP:  75 YEARS. 14

2.2.2.         MALIANS 31% RICHER, 21% LONGER LIFESPANS SINCE 1990. 14

2.2.3.         CANADIAN VS. MALIAN NUTRITIONAL INTAKE.. 15

2.2.4.         SECOND-YOUNGEST NATIONAL POPULATION.. 15

2.2.5.         11th-LARGEST GOLD PRODUCER.. 16

2.2.6.         UN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS. 16

2.2.7.         STABLE 1.5% HIV/AIDS PREVALENCE, 41% RECEIVING ARVs in 2007. 16

2.2.8.         FOREIGN DEBT CANCELATION.. 16

2.2.9.         LAND-LOCKED, DEFORESTATION & DESERTIFICATION, BUT EXPANDING AGRICULTURE.. 16

2.2.10.           A "MODEL" PERFORMER.. 17

2.2.11.           IMPROVING INCOME EQUITY. 18

2.2.12.           CAPITAL FLIGHT: LOWER THAN AFRICAN AVERAGE.. 18

2.2.13.           MALIAN EMIGRATION AND HOME REMITTANCES. 18

2.2.14.           MALIAN CHILD LABOUR IN IVORIAN COCOA PLANTATIONS. 18

2.2.15.           MALIANS' OPTIMISM EXCEEDS THAT OF 46 OTHER NATIONS: PEW RESEARCH SURVEY. 19

2.2.16.           REALITY CHECK ON THE GROUND: JOAN BAXTER & AMINATA TRAORÉ.. 19

2.3.        CANADA'S DEVELOPMENT ENGAGEMENT WITH MALI 19

2.3.1.         CANADA MALI's 3rd-HIGHEST DIRECT DONOR IN 2007. 20

2.3.2.         RAW AID FIGURES NOT THE WHOLE PICTURE.. 22

2.3.3.         EVALUATIONS OF CANADIAN AID IN MALI: CIDA (2007) & OECD (2008). 22

2.4.        ESTIMATES OF MALIAN-CANADIANS' HOME REMITTANCES: ca. C$0.7m. PER YEAR.. 23

2.4.1.         CANADA SHELTERS ONLY 0.1% OF MALIAN EXPATRIATES. 23

3.       CANADA'S BUSINESSES IN MALI 24

3.1.        SECOND-LARGEST INVESTOR IN AFRICAN MINING EXPLORATION.. 24

3.2.        GLOBAL MINING EXPLORATION LEADER.. 24

3.3.        MALIAN GOLD RUSH SUPPORTS 8% OF GDP. 25

3.4.        ONLY 0.4% OF MALIAN LABOUR FORCE IN MINING.. 25

3.5.        CANADIAN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN MALI 25

3.6.        CANADIAN SUBSOIL EXTRACTIVE COMPANIES IN MALI 27

3.7.        CANADIAN PUBLIC PENSION INVESTMENTS. 27

3.8.        TWENTY-TWO PERCENT OF MALIAN GOLD PRODUCTION IS CANADIAN-FUNDED.. 31

3.9.        MALIAN OIL. 31

3.10.           CANADA-MALI TRADE. 31

3.11.           FAIRNESS IN SHARING MALI'S GOLD REVENUES: IAMGOLD IN DETAIL. 34

4.       IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL MINING IN MALI 41

4.1.        SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDIES. 41

4.1.1.         NORTH-SOUTH INSTITUTE (2000). 41

4.1.2.         LES AMIS DE LA TERRE (2003). 41

4.1.3.         CHR. MICHELSEN INSTITUTE (2006). 41

4.1.4.         OXFAM AMERICA (2006). 42

4.1.5.         INDUSTRIAL GOLD MINING PROVIDES WAGES FOUR TIMES NATIONAL AVERAGE... 43

4.1.6.         ... BUT EXTREMELY LOW EMPLOYMENT LEVELS. 43

4.1.7.         OPACITY OF GOVERNMENT OF MALI - MINING COMPANY RELATIONS. 43

4.1.8.         GERSDA-Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche en Sociologie et Droit Appliqué (2008). 43

4.1.9.         ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI SELF-STUDIES (2003, 2005). 44

4.1.10.           UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL COMPACT (2007). 45

4.1.11.           FIDH- International Federation of Human Rights (2007). 45

4.2.        HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS. 46

4.2.1.         FIDH- International Federation of Human Rights (2007). 46

4.2.2.         SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS. 47

4.2.3.         GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION REPORTS. 47

4.2.4.         ORGANISATION DES RESSORTISSANTS À L’ETRANGER DES ZONES MINIÈRES. 48

4.2.5.         CAMILLE DE VITRY: L'OR NEGRE (2009). 48

4.2.6.         SILENT CANADIAN MAINSTREAM MEDIA.. 49

4.2.7.         GISÈLE BELEM: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (2009). 49

4.2.8.         ANGLO GOLD ASHANTI ENVIRONMENTAL SELF-REPORTING (2005-2007). 49

4.2.9.         KENIEBA, NEVSUN & AVION.. 50

5.       ARTISANAL GOLD MINERS, "NO DIRTY GOLD", "FAIR TRADE GOLD" and "FAIR TRADE COTTON"  50

5.1.        ARTISANAL GOLD MINING. 50

5.2.        FAIR TRADE GOLD.. 52

5.3.        CONFLICT METALS, "NO DIRTY GOLD", FAIR TRADE GOLD, RESPONSIBLE JEWELLERY.. 52

5.4.        WORLD GOLD TRADE:  INDIA #1 IMPORTER SINCE 2004. 52

5.5.        MALI, CANADA & COTTON TRADE. 53

5.6.        MALI FIRST IN FAIR-TRADE COTTON.. 53

6.       CANADA'S INTERNATIONAL MINING REGULATORY POLICY.. 54

6.1.        CANADIAN AND AFRICAN MINING REGULATORY POLICY.. 55

6.2.        MALI'S FOREIGN INVESTMENT POLICY: A WINNER'S CURSE. 57

6.3.        ANGLO-SAXON COLONISED REGIONS: DEVELOPMENT GAPS WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLES. 57

6.4.        RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: "BUILDING THE CANADIAN ADVANTAGE" & BILL C-300. 58

7.       CONCLUSIONS.. 59

8.       RECOMMENDATIONS.. 62

 

 

 


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