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Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border

Contents
Overview of Gun Trafficking from the United States to Mexico ..................................................1
U.S. Gun Control Statutes and an Inter-American, Anti-Gun Trafficking Convention...................3
     National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA)....................................................................................4
     The Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA) ....................................................................................4
     Arms Export Control Act of 1976 (AECA)............................................................................5
     Export Administration Regulations (EAR).............................................................................6
     OAS Convention on Illicit Firearms Trafficking (CIFTA) ......................................................7
ATF Enforcement of U.S. Gun Laws ...........................................................................................8
     ATF Compliance Inspections of Licensed Gun Dealers..........................................................9
     Straw Purchases and the Ant Run ........................................................................................10
     Multiple Handgun Sales Reports ......................................................................................... 11
     Gun Shows and Private Firearm Transfers ........................................................................... 11
     Semiautomatic Assault Weapons .........................................................................................12
     Fully Automatic Machineguns.............................................................................................13
     Project Gunrunner: ATF Efforts to Suppress Southwest Border Gun Trafficking..................13
          Funding for Gunrunner .................................................................................................13
          ATF Firearms Tracing for Mexican Authorities..............................................................14
          Merida and Appropriations Authorizations for ATF .......................................................17
Prosecution of Firearms Trafficking Cases and Related Statutes ................................................17
     McAllen, Texas—Possession and Receiving of Illegal Firearms ..........................................18
     Brownsville, Texas—Conspiracy to Make False Statements and Straw Purchases................19
     Victoria, Texas—Smuggling of Firearms .............................................................................19
U.S. Law Enforcement Challenges and Southwest Border Gun Trafficking ...............................20
Previously Proposed Anti-Gun Trafficking Measures.................................................................23
     Anti-Gun Trafficking Penalties Enhancement Act of 2007 (S. 77 and H.R. 1895) ................24
     Detectives Nemorin and Andrews Anti-Gun Trafficking Act of 2008 (H.R. 4818)................24
     End Gun Trafficking Act (S. 3634)......................................................................................25
Policy Questions Regarding Southwest Border Gun Trafficking ................................................26

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