METHODS AND STANDARDS
FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF
MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS, INC.
Certified Milk Producers have for over a hundred years produced nutritious safe, clean milk. Throughout the years the Certified producers have endeavored to produce the highest quality milk in the dairy industry. They have always been leaders in utilizing modern dairy technology. They have always complied with Federal, State and local regulations.
The American Association of Medical Milk Commissions will always demand that the Certified producers continue to produce the best possible milk and milk products, and where possible improve upon them. Our goal is that Certified Milk and Certified Milk products continue to be health-promoting and safe. The American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. will continue to sponsor research that will help produce the best quality milk and milk products. Since milk products make up approximately 25% of the American diet (the per capita consumption being about 6 oz. milk a day), we intend that by monitoring their products, Certified producers will give us products that will improve the health, strength and intelligence of the American people.
(Adopted by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.- June, 1984)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION OF CERTIFIED MILK PRODUCTS 5
Certified Milk 5
Raw Certified Milk - The Basic Product 6
Pasteurized Certified Milk 6
Certified Cream, Half and Half, and Non-Fat (Skim) Milk 7
Special Certified Milks 7
Labeling Special Certified Milk 8
NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND FLAVOR OF MILK 9
CERTIFICATIONS AND COMMISSIONS 9
Methods of Certification 10
Report of Medical Milk Commissions 12
LABORATORY STANDARDS FOR CERTIFIED MILK 12
Supervision and Reports 12
Bacteriological Methods and Standards 12
Total Bacterial Colony Counts: 13
Coliform Colony Counts: 13
Somatic Cell Counts: 13
Detection of Antibiotics 14
Detection of Additives 14
SUPERVISION OF THE
Herd Management 14
Herd Records 14
Pastures and Yards 15
DISEASE CONTROL 16
Withdrawals from the Milking
Mastitis and Abnormal Milk 17
Notification of Veterinarian 18
Disposal of Dead Animals 18
SANITARIAN DUTIES 18
PREPARATION AND HANDLING OF ANIMALS 21
Milk Processing 21
Milk Distribution 22
Certified Milk had its origin in the medical profession. In 1893 Dr. Henry L. Colt of Newark, N.J. formulated a plan to produce a supply of clean, safe, pure and nutritious milk for infant feeding. In accordance with this plan, the Medical Society of Essex County, N.J. appointed a Medical Milk Commission which entered into contract with a dairyman (Stephen Francisco of Caldwell, N.J.) willing and able to produce this milk which was to be "certified" by the Commission and labelled with the copyrighted and trademarked name "Certified Milk". Other medical societies soon followed the example of the Essex County Medical Society and by 1909 there were 58 local Medical Milk Commissions, each formulating its own methods and standards by showing a remarkable similarity in fundamental requirements.
In 1907 most of these local commissions were organized into the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. which had for its objects the adoption of uniform methods and standards for the production of Certified Milk and the extension of the movement throughout the country. Four standing committees were appointed: Medical Examination of
Employees; Chemical Standards; Bacteriological Standards; and Veterinary Inspections and Protection Against Tuberculosis. The personnel of these committees included such medical luminaries as Doctors W.H. Park, M.J. Rosenau, D.L. Edsall, L.L. Van Slyke, Henry Dwight Chapin, Rowland G. Freeman, M.P. Ravenel, Francis H. Slack, A.R. Ward, Leonard Pearson and others. These committees submitted reports that were adopted by the Associations and, in 1909, were published in the form of "A Manual of the Working Methods and Standards for the Use of the Medical Milk Commission." Since then, the Methods and Standards have been revised at the annual conventions of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. in pace with the latest scientific advances.
Certified Milk maintains a position of leadership in the dairy industry and exerts an influence far greater than volume of its sales may indicate. The object of the Association is to retain this leadership by adhering to the principle that improvements in the safety and nutrition of milk and milk products is best accomplished at the source of production, regardless of what subsequent treatment may be given to milk. It is the belief of the Association that Certified Milk is the highest grade milk
possible. Recognition of the preeminent standing of the Association is to be found in the laws of many states and municipalities that require that Certified Milk shall be produced in accordance with the Methods and Standards currently published by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions and by a similar definition that occurs in the United States Public Health Service Milk Ordinance.
Milk is essential for the survival of mammals. A mammal is an animal that has hair on its body and has mammary glands. In every language the word for mammal comes from the word for mammary glands. Thus milk, a complex biological system, is unique in its composition. The nutrients found in milk are essential for growth and development of the young. These nutrients, however, are very easily affected by storage, heat, light, air, chemicals, and by the health of the animal. The producers of Certified Milk have a commitment to produce milk in as natural a state as possible. Milk from healthy cows or goats, untouched by human hands, is bottled in containers, stored in refrigerators until consumed. It is our goal to insure the production of clean, nutrient-rich, unadulterated, and uncontaminated milk in its natural state.
The same Methods and Standards shall apply whether the milk is from either a cow or a goat. The American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. recognizes that the individual diary across the USA has distinct characteristics and that some adaptation is necessary to meet those methods and standards. Certified dairies meet additional health and production standards.
DEFINITION OF CERTIFIED MILK PRODUCTS
Certified Milk is produced by dairies operated in accordance with the Methods and Standards adopted by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. (AAMMC). It is produced under the direct supervision of local Medical Milk Commissions that are recognized and approved by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Only milk produced in accordance with the Methods and Standards and by approved dairies shall bear the Certified Milk label and bear the copyrighted seal of the American Association of Medical Milk Commission, Inc.
The Requirements in these Methods and Standards for the Production of Certified Milk shall be regarded as minimal and may be augmented by the requirements of local Milk Commissions. Any deviation from these Methods and Standards, without lowering fundamental standards, may be sanctioned but must be acceptable to the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Raw Certified Milk - The Basic Product
Certified milk is a basic product and is free from any adulteration. It must be produced and handled strictly in conformity with these Methods and Standards. It shall be free from objectionable odor and flavor. Any modification or processing of Certified Milk shall be plainly indicated on the label.
No Bovine Somatropin (BST) or any other hormones are to be administered to animals producing Certified Milk.
Pasteurized Certified Milk
Certified Milk produced in accordance with these Methods and Standards may be subsequently pasteurized and labeled Pasteurized Certified Milk. The American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. may grant permission for the milk to be pasteurized and bottled by means of freshly cleaned and sanitized equipment. Whether processed or not, every precaution shall be taken to insure that Certified Milk is not contaminated by any other milk. The location, the processing and milk handling equipment, the methods used, and the standards maintained shall be subject to the control of the Milk Commission and the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Certified Cream, Half and Half, and Non-Fat (Skim) Milk
All requirements covering the production, handling and standards of Certified Milk, except those referring to butterfat, shall also apply to Certified Cream and Non-Fat (Skim) Certified Milk. The percentage of butterfat in Certified Cream shall either be stated on the labels or conform to established local requirements.
Certified Half and Half shall be made from Certified Milk. The percentage of butterfat in Certified Half and Half shall be either stated on the label or conform to established local requirements.
Non-Fat (Skim) Certified Milk is defined as non-fat milk produced by centrifugal separation of Certified Milk to comply with Federal or State laws.
Special Certified Milks
The production of milk with special and nutritional properties, may be sold as Certified Milk providing the fluid whole milk, non-fat milk or cream used is Certified and meets all the requirements of Methods and Standards. The Methods and Standards for these products shall be approved by the local health authorities, and the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Vitamin D Certified Milk is defined as whole Certified Milk enriched by the addition of not more than 400 IV of Vitamin D per quad. This should be carried out at a suitable stage of milk processing without affecting the milk in any way.
Pasteurized-Homogenized Certified Milk is milk in which the fat globules have been broken up mechanically to such an extent that they do not rise to the surface to form a layer of cream. All homogenized milk must be heat-treated to destroy the lipase naturally present in milk.
Flavored Milk may be produced and labeled "Made from Certified Milk".
Labeling Special Certified Milk
Labels for special Certified milks may bear the Seal of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. The wording for such labels shall be submitted to and approved by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. Such products must be made under the supervision of the local Medical Milk Commission.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND FLAVOR OF MILK
Milk is a complex biological product whose nutritional value will vary with many factors. The composition of milk will change with variation in the production. It shall be the goal of the producers of Certified Milk to provide milk of the highest nutritional value. To this end, the animal should receive the finest veterinary care, be in optimal health, and be fed a diet that is pure, clean and healthy. All attempts should be made to treat the animal in a gentle and humane manner.
Certified milk is produce with handling and processing that makes minimal changes in the nutritive value. It will be marketed as soon as possible, always refrigerated at proper temperatures.
The producers are expected to do everything possible to oreserve the natural flavor and nutritional value of milk.
CERTIFICATIONS AND COMMISSIONS
Medical Milk Commissions may be appointed;
by an established Medical Society, or
by public health officials, or
by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc., as provided for by law in the community where the milk is to be produced, or
the State or local agency may certify the milk as long as it meets the standards of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Before such a Commission shall be recognized under the terms of these Methods and Standards, it must be approved by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc., and formal notification of such approval be issued by the president and secretary. The Association may rescind such approval at any time for cause and after hearing.
A milk commission shall adopt rules, regulations and standards governing the production, distribution and sale of certified milk.
The rules, regulations and standards adopted by a Milk Commission shall conform as to, or may be more restrictive than, the rules, regulations and standards for the production, distribution and sale of milk adopted by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Methods of Certification
After the Commission has received approval by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc., it may receive applications for certification from dairymen who
desire to undertake the production of Certified Milk. Dairymen producing Certified Milk are hereinafter referred to as Producers. Upon receipt of an application for certification, the Commission shall institute an investigation by its members and/or supervisors to determine whether or not the applicant has proper interest, intentions, personnel, livestock and equipment for the successful production of Certified Milk. If the result of such an investigation is favorable, the Commission may certify the milk and shall enter into an agreement with the producer to produce Certified Milk under the Methods and Standards. In this procedure it is understood that the Commission's certification shall continue as long as its standards and requirements are maintained. Certifications of a producer may be suspended at anytime after due hearing by either the Commission or by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. for failure to operate in accordance with the Methods and Standards or to meet financial obligations to the Commission or to the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Report of Medical Milk Commissions
Every Medical Milk Commission shall make reports to the officer of the Association, and also shall render special reports whenever requested.
Medical Milk Commissions shall promptly report to the Association any outbreak or epidemic of communicable disease suspected or known to be milk-borne in the communities where Certified Milk is produced or distributed.
LABORATORY STANDARDS FOR CERTIFIED MILK
Supervision and Reports
The maintenance of laboratory standards for Certified Milk shall be under the supervision of a licensed laboratory who shall be held responsible for the inspections and tests specified. They shall promptly render reports to the Commission and farms and shall immediately notify them if high bacterial counts or other questionable results are found.
Bacteriological Methods and Standards
Routine bacteriological examinations shall be made. These samples shall be properly handled until they are examined, which shall be as soon as possible after collection or within twenty-four (24) hours.
The examinations shall include:
1. Total Bacterial Colony Counts:
a. Raw Certified Milk shall have a total count of not more than 10,000 colonies per ml.
b. Pasteurized Certified Milk shall have a total count of not more than 25,000 colonies per ml. before pasteurization, in samples taken at the pasteurizing plant.
c. If these standards are not restored within ten (10) days and maintained, certification may be suspended.
2. Coliform Colony Counts:
a. Raw Certified Milk shall have a coliform colony count of not more than 10 per ml.
b. Certified Pasteurized Milk shall have a coliform colony count of not more than 50 per ml. before pasteurization.
c. If these standards are not restored within ten (10) days and maintained, certification may be suspended.
3. Somatic Cell Count:
Certified Milk shall not have an excessive somatic cell count. If excessive counts are found, the following steps shall be taken immediately:
a. Samples obtained directly from the farm shall be examined;
b. If the counts on these samples are high, process samples from along the line of production shall be examined until the source of high counts is found;
c. If these standards are not restored within ten (10) days and maintained, certification may be suspended.
Detection of Antibiotics
There shall be no antibiotics in Certified Milk. The milk from animals treated with antibiotics shall be withheld until the milk is free of antibiotics.
Detection of Additives
Any additives found in Certified Milk without the approval of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. is cause for immediate suspension of certification.
SUPERVISION OF THE HERD
Every animal in a Certified milk herd shall be ear-tagged, tattooed or marked by another method approved by the Milk Commission with a number that will permanently identify her.
Every animal in the herd shall be registered in a herd record which shall be accurately kept and readily accessible to the Milk Commission and official inspectors. This record shall include dates of entrance and departure from the herd, service and freshening, and dates and results of tuberculin and brucella testing. The record for every animal shall be kept on file at the farm as long as she is at the farm.
Pastures and Yards
Pastures or yards to which the animals have access shall be free from stagnant pools and at sufficient distance from offensive conditions so that the animals shall suffer no ill effects from them. Pastures or yards shall be free from infectious agents and from vegetation which may affect the animals or their milk deleteriously. Where animals are permanently maintained in open corrals, these corrals must be well-drained and kept in a sanitary condition. They shall be regularly scraped and manure hauled away. It is important from the standpoint of disease control that both crews and trucks doing this work shall not do similar cleaning on uncontrolled dairies.
A well-balanced ration of high quality nutrients shall be used that is adequate in protein, energy, fiber, minerals and vitamins. The ration will be designed to maintain healthy cows and produce milk of normal composition and superior flavor.
Only bedding which is clean, dry, absorbent and reasonably free from dust may be used.
Only negative herds in a modified accredited area as designated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture shall be used in the production of Certified Milk. When an application is made for certification, every animal shall be tuberculin tested. No animal shall be added to a herd producing Certified Milk unless such animal has originated from a negative herd in a modified accredited area and has passed a tuberculin test within sixty (60) days prior to admission to the herd. Certified herds shall be retested for tuberculosis annually.
All tuberculin tests shall be made by a veterinarian approved by the Government. All reactors shall be removed from the herd within 24 hours upon discovery. The barns and exercise yards used by them shall be cleaned and disinfected in a manner approved by the Commission.
All herds approved for the production of Certified Milk shall be officially accredited (certified brucellosis free) and maintained as brucellosis disease-free.
a. Reactors and suspects to be defined under Federal Standards using tested and approved procedures only. Reactors must be immediately removed from the herd.
Suspects are to be removed from the Certified milking string and retested within minimum thirty (30) day intervals until tested negative before readmission to the milking string.
b. AIl purchased herd additions shall be tested at the time of entering the herd. However, if animals are purchased from an officially accredited (certified brucellosis free) herd, an official negative test made within thirty (30) days of purchase shall qualify such animals to enter the herd.
c. The interpretation of blood agglutination tests shall be that of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
d. Tests shall be made under the supervision of agents acceptable to the local Commission and the State health authorities.
e. It is mandatory that all replacement cattle shall be calfhood-vaccinated for Brucellosis.
Withdrawals from the Milking String
It is the duty of the farm superintendent or the herdsman to see that any animal thought to be sick or diseased shall be immediately isolated from other animals in the milking string and none of their milk shall enter the Certified Milk supply.
Mastitis and Abnormal Milk
The milk from any animals with acute or chronic mastitis shall be withheld and not used for human consumption until her milk is normal and all antibiotic residue has been eliminated.
Notification of Veterinarian
In the event of the occurrence of a disease which appears to be of a serious nature, or if a number of animals become sick at about the same time, the dairyman shall withdraw such animals from the herd, destroy their milk and notify the Veterinarian immediately.
Disposal of Dead Animals
The carcass of any dead animal whether diseased or not should be disposed of in a sanitary manner. Methods of disposal must be approved by the local Medical Milk Commission. Local and State regulations may determine to some extent how this is done.
Any Sanitarian appointed by the Commission shall be eligible for employment with any approved milk inspection service. The above mentioned Sanitarian shall perform the duties hereinafter listed;
All building, equipment and services on a Certified Dairy shall be under the supervision of the Sanitarian, who shall make through inspections of every phase of production.
Any findings that are either questionable or blatant will be immediately reported to the Medical Milk Commission Chairman for his notice and/or action.
The timing of any and all inspections shall be at the whim of the Sanitarian but shall be at lease once a week and at any hour and shall include observation of the milking procedures.
The Sanitarian shall select proper and specific products for the testing of any Commission-designated facility on a schedule as specified. These samples may be on a bi-weekly basis or any other schedule as desired by the Medical Milk Commission.
Products to be tested shall include any Certified Milk product bearing the Certified Milk inscription, as well as samples taken from any milk handling equipment, tank or processor of Certified Milk.
Temperatures of milk in farm storage tanks or in refrigerators may be verified at the Sanitarian's discretion, as well as that of any stored Certified products.
These tests shall consist of:
1. Blood agar pour plate tests, to read bacteriological results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This will also detect variant in virulence among several of the offending organisms.
2. Coliform tests, to determine the thoroughness of the clean-up and sanitizing effects, principally. It also is influenced by condition of the corrals, completeness of the cow-washing, udder sanitation, drying-off of the udder and pre-milking of the cow.
3. Somatic Cell Counts (SCC). This reflects the operating efficiency of the milking machines, the design of the milking system, vacuum levels employed, the milking efforts of the employees, and the over-all management of the herd.
4. Salmonella testing. This can be a potential public health problem and deserves close supervision.
5. Any other bacteriological, viral, chemical or other laboratory tests that the Commission may feel necessary or desirable to ensure the quality of the Certified Milk product.
6. Standards Plate Count (SPC) may also be used if the Medical Milk Commission deem it advisable or necessary.
The Sanitarian shall attend all scheduled Medical Milk Commission hearings at any local designated location or time, and he will present a summary of the results of his inspections, examinations and tests.
Remuneration shall be by mutual agreement between the Sanitarian and the local Medical Milk Commission, and shall include both salary and travel expenses.
Milking of animals is expected to be done by modern technologically advanced milking equipment, providing the best sanitation.
PREPARATION AND HANDLING OF ANIMALS
Every animal used in the production of Certified Milk shall be clean before milking. Whether cleaned by dry grooming or hosing, the animal's udder must be given particular attention by wiping with cloths or paper towels used exclusively for this purpose. The udders may be paper or air dried. No wet cows are to be milked.
At every milking the first streams of milk from every teat shall be rejected. If any abnormal milk is disclosed, the milk from that animal shall be discarded and she shall be removed from the milking herd.
Adequate and conveniently located lavatory facilities must be provided for the milkers. Immediately before milking, the hands of the milkers shall be thoroughly washed. All milkers are to be educated and trained in modern dairy sanitation.
Procedures for the handling and processing of Certified Milk shall follow or exceed local regulations.
Certified Milk shall be bottled and sealed at an American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. approved creamery.
Paper, glass, plastic or other approved containers may be used for Certified Milk as certified by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc.
Other or novel methods of milk handling, processing, packaging, storage or distribution may be temporarily permitted, subject to whatever controls and conditions may be necessary by local regulations.
The approved containers used shall be marked on their exposed surface with the approved copyrighted seal of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. and other information as required by the local Medical Milk
Commission and the State or local regulatory agencies.
During transportation, milk shall be kept properly cooled and the containers (bottles) shall be kept free from dust and dirt. Trucks, trays and crates shall be kept dean. The Medical Milk Commission may exercise its authority to determine the
type of truck necessary to safeguard Certified Milk under climatic conditions existing in its area.
Distributors handling Certified Milk must keep it at a temperature above freezing point and below 45 degrees fahrenheit from the time it is received until the time it is delivered to the consumer.
The milking in any consecutive 24 hour period shall constitute a days product. Certified Milk is a premium product and should be delivered to the consumer in the shortest possible time after production.
All persons who come in contact with Certified Milk shall exercise scrupulous cleanliness and shall not be afflicted with any communicable disease.
The Methods and Standards for the Production of Certified Milk of the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions, Inc. is to be used as a general guide for the production of the finest milk and milk products available anywhere. Local Commissions are to establish methods, procedures or guidelines to ensure that the finished product reaching the consumer meets those standards. Additional laboratory
testing, or production supervision, may be required by a governmental agency or local commission to that outlined in these methods and standards.
MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS, INC.
1824 Hillhurst Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90027
Phone (323) 664-1977