Course:  Complexity, individuation and function in ecology

Prof. John Collier (Departamento de Filosofia, Universidade de Kwazulu-Natal, África do Sul. Pesquisador Visitante do Laboratório de Ensino, Filosofia e História das Ciências (LEFHBio), Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras)

 

Promoção do Projeto INOMEP/PRONEX, coordenado por prof. Charbel El-Hani (IB-UFBA)

 

O curso necessita de INSCRIÇÃO via email workshop.pronex@gmail.com

Para se inscrever, enviar email manifestando interesse pelo curso e justificando tal interesse com curto parágrafo de 5 linhas.

 

As inscrições serão aceitas até o dia 21/08/2013.

Resultado da seleção será divulgado dia 23/08/2013

 

Changes marked in orange

Web resources are at http://web.ncf.ca/collier/Function_ecology_UFBA/

 

LOCAL: Instituto de Biologia/UFBA

 

DATAS:

28/08/2013 – 10-13 horas (Salão Nobre)

30/08/2013 – 10-13 horas (Sala 4)

02/09/2013 – 10-13 horas (Salão Nobre)

03/09/2013 – 10-12 horas (Sala 4)

04/09/2013 – 10-12 horas (Sala 5)

05/09/2013 – 10-12 horas (Salão Nobre)

06/09/2013 – 10-12 horas (Sala 3)

 

PROGRAMA:

This course will have two parts. The first part will deal generally with complex systems, specifically complexly organized systems of the kind that are found widely in biology. The issues dealt with will be complex systems and their properties, methods of dealing with complex systems, how to individuate systems in a way that allows testing, emergent properties and entities, hierarchy, autonomy and functionality. These topics will then be applied to ecological systems, respecting their peculiar nature. In particular, individuation in ecological systems is less sharp than for, say organisms, and their stabilizing properties are less strict than the autonomy we find in organisms. This means that the notion of ecological functionality is less clear and it must be carefully distinguished from candidate properties like ecological role, ecological services and biodiversity. In many cases the ecological functions within an ecosystem are rather abstract, and individual entities (such as predator and prey roles) play only an indirect function. A proper understanding of ecosystem function will also help towards understanding ecosystem robustness, resilience to perturbations, and to some extent to ecosystem management.

I have provided some background readings for each section. The required readings will be a much smaller set, given for each class..

 

Outline

Part 1

1.       28/08/2013 Complexity and organization

a.       Definitions and reasons for focus on organized complexity

                                                               i.      Collier, John and C.A. Hooker. 1999. Complexly organised dynamical systems. Open Systems and information Dynamics, 6: 241-302.

                                                             ii.      Rosen and von Foerster on simple and complex systems: Last chapter of Rosen, R., 2000. Essays on Life Itself. Columbia University Press, New York. Hertz Diagram from H. Pattee.

b.       Problems of representing complex systems, modelling relation

                                                               i.      Two Faces of Maxwell's Demon Reveal the Nature of Irreversibility. Studies in the Hist and Phil of Science,1990: 257-268.

                                                             ii.      Chemero, Anthony, and Michael T Turvey. 2008. Autonomy and Hypersets. Bio Systems 91 (2) (February): 320–30.

                                                           iii.      Hertz diagram from Howard Pattee

c.       Problems with managing complex systems

                                                               i.      Organized complexity: Properties, models and the limits of understanding (Havana 2004)

2.       30/08/2013 Individuation of complex systems and testing representations, dynamical realism and Emergence of properties and levels

a.       Individuation and autonomy

                                                               i.      A dynamical approach to identity and diversity in complex systems. In Paul Cilliers, Rika Prieser eds. Complexity, Difference and Identity: an Ethical Perspective. 2010 Berlin: Springer.

b.       Hierarchy and downward causation (is an oversimplified model with many pitfalls) – Two notions of biological hierarchy (ISHPSSB 2011)

c.       Heterarchy and networks – Lecture notes

d.       Individuation of levels

                                                               i.      Collier, John. 2003. Hierarchical Dynamical Information Systems With a Focus on Biology. Entropy, 5 : 100-124.

e.       Emergence

                                                               i.      Collier, John. 2008. A dynamical account of emergence. Cybernetics and Human Knowing. 15 no. 3-4: 75-86.

                                                             ii.      Collier, John. Emergence in dynamical systems. Submitted 2013.

3.       02/09/2013 Functionality

a.       Versions and their problems

                                                               i.      Wright, Larry. 1973. Functions. The Philosophical Review. 82, No. 2. pp. 139-168.

                                                             ii.      Cummins, Robert. 1975. Functional Analysis. The Journal of Philosophy. 72, No. 20. pp. 741-765.

                                                           iii.      Explaining Biological Functionality: Is Control Theory Enough? South African Journal of Philosophy. 2011, 30(4): 53-62.

b.       Autonomy and functionality

                                                               i.      Moreno et al

                                                             ii.      Collier, J. 2000. Autonomy and Process Closure as the Basis for Functionality. Annals of the New York Academy of Science.

                                                           iii.      Collier, J. Simulating autonomous anticipation: The importance of Dubois' Conjecture (ALife X 2006, Biosystems 2008)

                                                           iv.      Conditions for fully autonomous anticipation (CASYS 2005)

c.       Testing functions – Lecture notes, closure, “for the sake of”

 

Suggested Background Readings:

Chemero, Anthony, and Michael T Turvey. 2008. Autonomy and Hypersets. Bio Systems 91 (2) (February): 320–30.

Collier, John. 2002. What is Autonomy? Partial Proceedings of CASYS'01: Fifth International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems, International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems: 12: 212-221, published by CHAOS.

Collier, John. 2003. Hierarchical Dynamical Information Systems With a Focus on Biology. Entropy, 5 : 100-124.

Collier, John. 2008. Simulating autonomous anticipation: The importance of Dubois' Conjecture. Biosystems 91: 346-354.

Collier, John. 2008. A dynamical account of emergence. Cybernetics and Human Knowing. 15 no. 3-4: 75-86.

Collier, John. 2010. A dynamical account of individuation and diversity. In Paul Cilliers (ed.) Complexity, Difference and Diversity. Berlin: Springer: 79-93.

Collier, John. 2011. Information, causation and computation. In Information and Computation: Essays on Scientific and Philosophical Understanding of Foundations of Information and Computation, Ed by Gordana Dodig Crnkovic and Mark Burgin. Singapore: World Scientific.

 

Collier, John and C.A. Hooker. 1999. Complexly organised dynamical systems. Open Systems and

Information Dynamics, 6: 241-302.

Cummins, Robert. 1975. Functional Analysis. The Journal of Philosophy. 72, No. 20. pp. 741-765.

Rosen, R., 2000. Essays on Life Itself. Columbia University Press, New York. Especially the final chapter.

Wright, Larry. 1973. Functions. The Philosophical Review. 82, No. 2. pp. 139-168.

 

 

Part 2

1.       03/09/2013 Complexity in ecosystems, systems ecology

a.       Implications for observation (scale, kind)

b.       Implications for management (unintended consequences, boundary stability)

Read Zellmer et al 2006

Various figures from Allen and Hoekstra on the course site in the Allen directory

2.       04/09/2013 Individuation of ecosystems, stability, resilience

Read Cumming and Collier 2005 and Collier and Cumming 2011

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1986. Theoretical ecology: Ecosystem ascendency. pp. 481-483. In 1987 Yearbook of Science and Technology McGraw-Hill, NY.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1995. Network growth and development: Ascendency. pp. 643-655. In: B.C. Patten and S.E. Jorgensen (eds.). Complex Ecology: the part-whole relation in ecosystems Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

3.       05/09/2013 Emergence in ecosystems and ecosystem levels

Read: Ulanowicz, R.E. 1981. A unified theory of self-organization. pp. 649-652. In: W.J. Mitsch, R.W. Bosserman and J.M. Klopatek (eds.). Energy and Ecological Modeling. Elsevier, NY.

4.       06/09/2013 Ecosystem functionality

 

Selections from Allen, Timothy F.H. and Thomas W. Hoekstra. 1992. Towards a Unified Ecology. NewYork: Columbia University Press.

Collier, John (2011) Two notions of biological hierarchy (ISHPSSB 2011)

Cumming, G. S., and J. Collier. 2005. Change and identity in complex systems. Ecology and Society 10(1): 29.

Collier, John and Graeme Cumming. 2011. A dynamical approach to ecosystem identity. In B. Brown, K. de Laplante and K. Peacock, Philosophy of Ecology. Dordrecht: North-Holland.

Odum Howard T. 1983. Systems Ecology: An Introduction, New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1981. A unified theory of self-organization. pp. 649-652. In: W.J. Mitsch, R.W. Bosserman and J.M. Klopatek (eds.). Energy and Ecological Modeling. Elsevier, NY.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1995. Network growth and development: Ascendency. pp. 643-655. In: B.C. Patten and S.E. Jorgensen (eds.). Complex Ecology: the part-whole relation in ecosystems Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Potochnik, Angela and Brian McGill. 2012. The Limitations of Hierarchical Organization. Philosophy of Science. 79: 120-140

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1986. Growth and Development: Ecosystems Phenomenology Springer-Verlag, NY.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1986. Theoretical ecology: Ecosystem ascendency. pp. 481-483. In 1987 Yearbook of Science and Technology McGraw-Hill, NY.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1995. Network growth and development: Ascendency. pp. 643-655. In: B.C. Patten and S.E. Jorgensen (eds.). Complex Ecology: the part-whole relation in ecosystems Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Ulanowicz, R.E. 1997. Ecology, the Ascendent Perspective Columbia University Press, New York

Zellmer A.J., T.F.H. Allen and K. Kesseboehmer. 2006. The nature of ecological complexity: A protocol for building the narrative. Ecological Complexity 3:171–182